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Lesson 6- Radio

ECE121-Principles of Communications
Radio Receiver
• In radio communications, is an electronic device that
receives radio waves and converts the information carried by
them to a usable form.
• It is used with an antenna
Basic Function of a receiver
• The receiver should be capable of changing the range of
frequencies to be received
• The receiver should be able to detect and convert the received
RF signal to the original source information
• The receiver should be able to provide sufficient amplification
Receiver Parameters
• Selectivity
• A measure of the ability of a receiver to accept a given
band of frequencies and to reject all others
• A measure of the extent to which a receiver is capable
of differentiating between the desired information
signals and the disturbances or information signal at
other frequencies
• Can be expressed as a bandwidth and as the ratio of
the bandwidth at the receiver at some predetermined
attenuation factor (commonly –60dB) to the
bandwidth at the –3dB (half-power) points
Shape Factor - is a measure of steepness of the receiver
The general rule is that the closer these numbers are to
each other, the better the receiver

BW- 60dB
SF (Shape Factor) 
BW- 3dB

0 Selectivit y  SF  100

0 Selectivit y 
BW actual
0  100
BW minimum
• Bandwidth Improvement
• The noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing the bandwidth

BI 
 Noise Figure Improvement

NF improv ement  10 log BI

 Sensitivity
o The minimum RF signal level that can be detected at
the input to the receiver and still produce a usable
demodulated information signal
• Dynamic Range
• The difference in decibels between the minimum input
level necessary to discern a signal and the input level that
will overdrive the receiver and produce distortion
• The range of input power over which the receiver is useful

DR  10 log
 Fidelity
o A measure of the ability of a communications system to
produce, at the output of the receiver, an exact replica of
the original source information
• Insertion Loss
• The ratio of the power transferred to the load to the power at the

IL  10 log
Types of Radio Receivers
• Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver
• (TRF receiver) is a radio receiver that is usually composed of several
tuned radio frequency amplifiers followed by circuits to detect and
amplify the audio signal.

• Advantages
• Enhanced sensitivity
• Simple circuitry
• Disadvantages
• Poor selectivity
• Instability
• Requires multistage tuning
This 1920s TRF radio manufactured by Signal is
constructed on a breadboard
• Generally, two or three RF amplifiers are required to filter and
amplify the received signal to a level sufficient to drive the
detector stage.
• The detector recovers the audio frequency signal from the
modulated RF signal
• The audio stage amplifies the information signal to a usable
• Superheterodyne Receiver
• Heterodyning means mixing two frequencies together in a non-linear
• uses frequency mixing or heterodyning to convert a received signal to a
fixed intermediate frequency (IF), which can be more conveniently
processed than the original radio carrier frequency
• Advantages
• Good selectivity
• Sufficient image frequency rejection
• Disadvantages
• Moderate sensitivity (relatively poor compared to the TRF)
• Complex circuitry
What is the intermediate frequency fif?
•It is fixed frequency located at 455 kHz
•The IF filter is band-pass with center frequency of 455 kHz and
bandwidth equal to the bandwidth of one AM channel approximately
=10 kHz.

-Fc -Fif Fif Fc

Why do we need the IF Stage?
•It is too difficult to design a tunable and sharp filter. So
we design sharp & fixed filter.
•The channel to be filtered out should first be frequency
shifted to the IF frequency by a frequency converter as
shown in the super heterodyne Figure

-Fc -Fif Fif Fc

Section of a Superhetorodyne
• RF Section
• Generally consists of a preselector and an amplifier stage

• Preselector
• Provides enough initial bandlimiting to prevent a specific
unwanted radio frequency (image frequency) from entering the

• RF Amplifier
• Determines the sensitivity of the receiver
Advantages of including RF
amplifiers in a Receiver
• Greater gain, thus better sensitivity
• Improved image-frequency rejection
• Better signal-to-noise ratio
• Better selectivity
Mixer/Converter Section
• Includes a local oscillator and a radio-frequency oscillator stage.
Heterodyning takes place in the mixer stage and the radio-
frequencies are down-converted to intermediate frequencies (IF).

f s+fo
fs (IF)
MIXER fs-fo

fO  f S fO  f S High-side Injection

fO  f S f S  fO Low-side Injection
Image Frequency, fSI
• The frequency other than the desired which when mixed with the
local oscillator will produce the same intermediate frequency

fs f IF  f O  f S
fsi MIXER f IF  f SI  f O
2 f IF  f SI  f S

f si  f s  2 f i f IF  f S  f O
f IF  f O  f SI
2 f IF  f S  f SI
Image Frequency Rejection Ratio
• The ratio of the gain at the signal frequency to the gain at the image

IFRR  1  Q  2 2

IFRRdB  20 log IFRR

where: Q = quality factor of the tuned circuit.

f si f s
 
f s f si
• IF Section
• Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters and is
often called the IF strip. Most of the receiver gain and selectivity
is achieved in this section

• Detector
• Converts the IF signal back to the original source information

• Audio Section
• Comprises several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more
Single Sideband Receiver
• Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO)
• Produces a frequency input to beat (mix) with the IF signal and
results in a difference and sum frequencies with the result being
the original audio
• Should have at least the tuning range of 1.5 kHz above and below
the center of the IF passband
Non-Coherent BFO SSB Receiver
• in a receiver, the input signal (suppressed or
reduced carrier and one sideband) is amplified
and then mixed with the RF local oscillator
frequency to produce intermediate frequency.
• the output from the RF mixer is then goes
through further amplification and band
reduction prior to second mixer.
• the output from the IF amplifier stage is then
mixed (heterodyned) with beat frequency
oscillator (BFO) frequency.
• BFO frequency is equal to the IF carrier frequency. Thus the
difference between the IF and the BFO frequency is the
information signal.
i.e. the output from the IF mixer is the sum and difference
frequencies between the IF and the beat frequency. The difference
frequency band is the original input information.
• the receiver is classified as noncoherent because the RF oscillator
and the BFO signals are not synchronized to each other and to the
oscillators in the transmitter.
Consequently, any difference between the transmitter and receiver
local oscillator frequencies produces a frequency offset error in the
demodulated information signal.
• the RF mixer and IF mixer are product detectors. A product
detector and balanced (product) modulator are essentially the same
Coherent BFO SSB Receiver
• this type of receiver is identical to the previous
non-coherent type, except that the LO and BFO
frequencies are synchronized to the carrier
oscillators in the transmitter.
• the carrier recovery circuit is a narrowband PLL that
tracks the pilot carrier in the SSBRC signal.
• the recovered carrier is then used to generate coherent
local oscillator frequencies (RF LO frequency & BFO
frequency) in the synthesizer.
 any minor changes in the carrier frequency in the
transmitter are compensated in the receiver, and the
problem of frequency offset error is eliminated.
Problem 1
A TRF is to be designed with a single tuned circuit using a – 20uH
a) Calculate the capacitance range of the variable capacitor
required to tune from 535 – 1605 kHz.
b) The ideal 10-kHz bandwidth occur at 1000kHz. Determine Q.
c) Calculate the bandwidth of this receiver at 535 kHz and at
1605 kHz
fc 
2 LC
535kHz 
2 20 x10 C
C  4.42nF
fc 
2 LC
1605kHz 
2 20 x10 C 6

C  491.65 pF

b) fr c) fr
BW  BW 
fr 1000 535
Q  BW  BW  5.35kHz
BW 10 100

Q  100 1605
BW 
BW  16.05kHz
Problem 2
• For an AM receiver that uses high-side injection and has a
local oscillator frequency of 1455kHz, determine the IF carrier
upper side frequency and lower side frequency for an RF
signal that is made up of a carrier, an upper and lower side
frequencies of 1000 kHz, 1005 kHz, 995 kHz respectively

f IF  f O  f S
f IF USB   1455  1005
f IF  1455  1000
f IF USB   460kHz
f IF  455kHz
f IF  LSB   1455  995

f IF  LSB   450kHz
Problem 3
A receiver tunes the 300 kHz to 3 MHz MF band in one range,
using an IF of 35.75MHz. Calculate the range of oscillator
frequencies and the range of image frequencies.

f IF  f O  f S f SI  f S  2 f IF

35.75MHz  f OL  300kHz f SI ( L )  300kHz  235.75MHz 

f OL  36.05MHz f SI ( L )  71MHz

35.75MHz  f OH  3MHz f SI ( H )  3MHz  235.75MHz 

f OH  38.75MHz f SI ( H )  74.5MHz
Problem 4
What is the local oscillator frequency range in the commercial
AM broadcast if the IF is equal to 455kHz?

f IF  f O  f S

f O  f IF  f S

f O  455kHz  535kHz

f OL  990kHz

f O  455kHz  1605kHz

f OH  2060kHz
Problem 5
Determine the image frequency of a broadcast band receiver
using a 455kHz IF tuned to 630kHz – DZMM.

f SI  f S  2 f IF

f SI  630kHz  2455kHz 

f SI  1540kHz
Problem 6
Determine the local oscillator frequency of a broadcast band
receiver using 455-kHz IF tuned at 630kHz

f O  f IF  f S

f O  455kHz  630kHz

f O  1085kHz
Problem 7
For a receiver with IF, RF and Local oscillator frequencies of
455kHz, 630kHz and 1085kHz, respectively, determine the:
a) Image frequency.
b) IFRR for a pre-selector Q of 80

f SI  f S  2 f IF

f SI  630kHz  2455kHz 

f SI  1540kHz

IFRR  1  Q 2  2
f SI fS
 
fS f SI
1540 630
 
630 1540
  2.035

IFRR  1 80  2.035

2 2

IFRR  162.803
*Problem 8
A superheterodyne receiver is tuned to a frequency of 10MHz
when the local oscillator frequency is 12.5 MHz.
a) What is the IF?
b) Which type of injection is used?

f IF  f O  f S

f IF  12.5  10

f IF  2.5MHz

b) High Side Injection

*Problem 9
One receiver has a sensitivity of 1 uV and another has a
sensitivity of 10-dBf under the same measurement conditions.
Both receivers have an input 75. Which is more sensitive?


1V 
 1.33 x10 14 W
R 75
 P   1x10 14 
PdBf  10 log 15 
 10 log 15
 1x10   1x10 
PdBf  11.24dB f

11.24dBf > 10dBf

 10dBf is more sensitive
Problem 10
A receiver has a sensitivity of 0.75 uV and a blocking dynamic
range of 80dB. What is the strongest signal that can be present
along with a 0.75 uV without any blocking/desensitization taking
 Vmax 
DR  20 log 
 Vmin 
 Vmax 
80  20 log 
 0.75V 

Vmax  7.5mV
Problem 11
For an AM receiver tuned to a station at 590kHz with IF=455kHz,
calculate the image frequency rejection in dB. Assume that the
input filter consist of one tuned circuit with a Q of 40.

1500 590
IFRR  1  Q 2  2  
590 1500
f SI fS   2.149
 
fS f SI IFRR  1 40  2.149 
2 2

f SI  f S  2 f IF
IFRR  85.965
f SI  590kHz  2455kHz  IFRRdB  20 log85.965
f SI  1500kHz IFRRdB  38.67 dB
Problem 12
A superheterodyne receiver having an RF amplifier and an IF of
10.6 MHz is tuned to 90.7MHz. Calculate the Q’s of the RF and
mixer input tuned circuits, both being the same, if the receiver’s
overall image rejection is to 100.

IFRR  1  Q 2  2 
111.9 90.7

90.7 111.9
f SI fS
 
fS f SI   0.4232
f SI  f S  2 f IF 100  1  Q  0.4232 
2 2

f SI  90.7 MHz  210.6 MHz 

Q  236.2831
f SI  111.9 MHz
Problem 13
Determine the net receiver gain for an AM receiver with an RF
input power of -88dBm and an audio signal of 12dBm

 Pout 
GdB  10 log 
 Pin 
GdB  10 log Pout  10 log Pin

GdB  12dBm   88dBm 

GdB  100dB
Problem 14
A receiver for a signal at 150MHz uses a 10.7-MHz IF and low
tracking. Calculate the LO frequency and the image frequency.

f O  f S  f IF

f O  150  10.7

f O  139.3MHz

f SI  f S  2 f IF

f SI  150 MHz  210.7 MHz 

f SI  171.4 MHz
Problem 15
A receiver intended for the aircraft to control tower signals at
110MHz uses double conversion, with 10.7MHz and 455kHz IF’s.
Calculate the following if the receiver employs low tracking: a)
LO frequencies, b) frequencies after using the first mixer, c)
output of the 2nd mixer, d) image frequency

fs1 fIF1 = fs2


fLO1 fLO2
a) d)
f O1  f S 1  f IF 1
f SI 1  f S 1  2 f IF 1
f O1  110  10.7
f SI 1  110 MHz  210.7 MHz 

f O1  99.3MHz f SI  131.4 MHz

f O 2  f S 2  f IF 2
f SI 2  f S 2  2 f IF 2
f O 2  10.7 MHz  455kHz
f SI 2  10.7 MHz  2455kHz 
f O 2  10.245MHz
b) f SI 2  11.61MHz
f IF 1  10.7 MHz

f IF 2  455kHz