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Lecture No.

24
Mechanical Joints- Welding, Cotter and
Knuckle Joints and Couplings

Delivered by

Mr. Bhargav

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Learning Outcomes

• At the end of this lecture, student will be able to :


– Define welding, list types of weld joints, list types of weld
– Explain the principle of arc and gas welding and welding defects.
– Explain the types and usage of couplings
– Describe a typical cotter and knuckle joint, its components and
working principle.

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Welding
Welding: Welding is a process in which two or more
materials are joined by application of heat and/or pressure
Two parts are joined together by:
– Heating alone and no pressure applied
– Heating and applying pressure together
– Pressure alone and no heating
Two Major factors:
• Material of parts to be welded
• Degree of permanency needed

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Types of Welds
• Fillet weld
– It is used to fill the plates created by corner, lap
and tee joints
– It is most common weld in arc and gas welding
– It can be single or double and can be continuous
or intermittent
• Groove weld
– The edges of the parts can be grooved to
facilitate weld penetration
– Grooves can be V, U, J shaped
• Plug weld
– It is used to attach one or more flat plates
– Filler material is filled in one or more holes or
slots in the top part
– The filler material is used to fuse the two parts

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Types of Welds
• Spot weld
– In this process a small section between the
surfaces of two sheets or plates are joined
– Multiple spot welds are typically required
to join the parts
• Seam weld
– Seam weld has a continuous fuses between
two sheets or plates
• Flange weld
– A flange weld is made on the edges of two
parts and at least one is flange

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Types of Weld Joints
There are five types of weld joints
– Butt Joint parts lie in the same plane
and are joined along their edges
– Corner Joint parts are joined at the
corner
– Lap Joint two overlapping parts are
joined
– Tee Joint in this joint, the parts form
the English letter T
– Edge Joint parts are parallel and at
least one of their edges are parallel

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Types of Welding
• Fusion Welding: Parts are heated to molten state and
then solidified. filler material may be added to facilitate
joining.
a) Arc Welding
b) Gas Welding
• Pressure Welding: Parts are fused together by heating up
to plastic state and applying external pressure.
a) Forge Welding
b) Resistance Welding

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Arc welding principle

Arc temperature
5000 to 6000 ⁰ C
Plates before welding Welding Process Welded Joint
Two conductors are touched together momentarily and then
separated slightly. Work-piece to be welded act as one pole and
the electrode (welding rod) acts as another. The high voltage
between electrode and work-piece forms an arc due to the flow
of high current. 8
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Arc Welding Electrodes
• Consumable electrodes: Melts along with the jobs and
fills the joint.
• Bare electrodes: Reduce strength of joint as hot
molten metal react with atmospheric air to form non-
metallic constituents
• Coated Electrodes: helps in 1) Protecting from air 2)
Establish and maintain arc 3) Slag avoid rapid cooling 4)
Addition of alloying element. Ex: Chalk, Ferro
Manganese, starch, Kaolin etc.
• Non-consumable electrode: Additional filler material is
required
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Gas welding: Gas Welding Principle
• Gas welding: Acetylene gas is burnt in the presence of pure oxygen
to reach temperature around 3500 oC to cause the localized melting
of the work-piece material (e.g. steel) to be joined at the junction. A
filler metal is also used depending on work-piece material to be
joined. The molten metal after solidification form a solid joint.

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Resistance Welding
• Heat required for
welding is
produced by
Electrical
resistance
• Thin parts are
welded by this
method
• Current of order
of 100,000 A
• Voltage range-
0.5-10 V
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Welding Defects

• Cracking
• Incorrect edge preparation
• Craters: Concave depressions reduces weld volume /strength
• Undercutting: Excess melting of metal reduces strength
• Porous Weld
• Over welding

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Advantages and Limitations of Welding

• Advantages:
– Joints can be stronger
– Usually the most economical way of joining

• Limitations:
– Manual operations
– Higher cost
– Welding defects are sometimes difficult to determine

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Couplings

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Classification
Coupling: Mechanical element that assists in connecting two shafts
together to transmit power or rotational motion

1. Rigid Couplings: Shafts are well aligned and there's minimal


vibration.
No relative axial & rotational motion

2 Flexible Coupling: Shafts are misaligned and there is vibration


during power transmission.

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Types of Rigid couplings
1. Flanged Couplings
2. Split flange Coupling
3. Keyed Coupling
4. Muff Coupling
5. Friction Coupling

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Flanged Coupling

Split flange Coupling

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Keyed Coupling

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Muff coupling

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Friction Coupling

Driver Friction Material


Driver Shaft Driven Shaft
Plate A
In motion In motion

Driver Shaft Driven Shaft


In motion Stationary

Clutch Disengaged Clutch Engaged

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Flexible Couplings:
Types of Flexible couplings

1. Universal Joint
2. Flexible Coupling
3. Flexible shaft/Flexible Sleeve Coupling
4. Chain/Roller chain Coupling

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Universal Joint

• Consist of two end yokes and a center bearing block.


• Allows angular misalignment of up to 45 degrees.

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Flexible Coupling

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Flexible Shaft /Flexible Sleeve Couplings

A coupling that flexibly connects two shafts together for power


transmission applications; this type of coupling is used when the
shafts are slightly misaligned or when there's high vibration.

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Chain/Roller Chain Couplings

A Coupling consisting of two sprocket hubs when placed


together and are held together by a double strand roller
chain.
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Cotter joints

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Cotter joint
• COTTER: flat wedge-shaped piece of steel used to connect rigidly
two rods which transmit motion in the axial direction, without
rotation. Steel is the general material used
• Cotter Joint is a temporary joint as it can be assembled and
disassembled

Cotter pin in a bicycle


• Applications: connection of piston rod to the crosshead of a steam
engine, Pedals of bicycle are joined to Main Shaft using Cotter joint
• yokes in rods, tool fixtures etc.
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Sleeve And Cotter Joint

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Socket and Spigot Joint

• Slots are wider than the cotter.


• Cotter pulls the rod and socket tightly together
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Gib and Cotter Joint

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Knuckle Joint

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Knuckle Joint
• Knuckle joint is a type of mechanical joint used in structures, to
connect two intersecting cylindrical rods, whose axes lie on the
same plane.
• It permits some angular movement between the cylindrical rods (in
their plane). It is specially designed to withstand tensile loads.

EXPLODED
VIEW

ASSEMBLED
VIEW
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Knuckle Joint
Advantages Disadvantages
Knuckle joint can withstand large tensile The joint cannot withstand large
loads compressive loads
It has good mechanical rigidity It permits angular movement in only one
plane
It is easy to manufacture and set up It is not as flexible as universal joint
It can be easily dismantled and
assembled
Design is simple and easy

Applications of Knuckle Joint:


Knuckle joints find a wide variety of applications. They are used in:

Bicycle chains , Tractors, Trusses, Automobile wipers, Cranes, Chain straps of watches,
Earth movers, Robotic joints, Structural members
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Summary
• Welded joints are permanent joints.
• Some common types of welded joints are:
– Fillet weld, groove weld, plug weld, spot weld, seam weld, flange weld
• Similar to the riveted joint, welded joints can be lap joints, butt
welded joints, corner joint, Tee joint, Edge joints
• Welding can be arc welding, gas welding, pressure welding
• Couplings are used to transfer power between two parallel shafts
• Mechanical couplings can be rigid coupling or flexible coupling
• Rigid coupling types include
– Muff, flange, Keyed, Friction, Gear, Magnetic
• Flexible couple types include:
– Flexible Sleeve Coupling, Chain/Roller chain Coupling, Fluid Coupling, Pin
and bush type
• Cotter and knuckle joints
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