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# Pre-stress Concrete structure

Session 3
Design Concept

## Conclusion: Pre-Stress concrete structure must design based on limit strength

(LRFD), and Allowable stress design (ASD)

𝑀𝑦 𝐼 𝑀
ASD main formula: σ = ; =s →σ=
𝐼 𝑦 𝑆

1. Prestressing

## 2 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 2

The loading stages that occur in pre-stress concrete structure form its making to
Fungsiionable are consist of:
1. Transfer Stage/ Initial condition
Define as the time when the pre-stress force is transfered from jacking to
the concrete
2. Service Stage/ Final conditon
Define as the time when all Live load are working on structure and the pre-
stress tendon has loss of pre-tension

## ASD Design Must be Checked for each loading

stage
and LRFD mus be cheked on final stage

## 3 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 3

Stage Initial Stage Final Stage
Time consider: t = t0 t = tx or te
Pre Stress force: Pi Pt or Pe or P∞
(< Pi due to LOP)
Concrete Strength Concrete Age < 28 days Concrete reach 28 days
fc’= fci fc’ = fc
Loading Works Pre-stress force (Pi) Pre-stress force (Pt)

## 4 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 4

Example Prestress girder Bridge
Working Stage Loads LOP Pre-Stress Secton Properties
(Loss of Prestress) Force
Girder Girder self 1. Elastic. Shorting Jacking Netto section
Asembling and weight 2. Anchorage draw in Force(Pj) (ducting hole not
pre-stress 3. Tendon Friction yet grout)
jacking DPo
And initial pre-
stress
Pi = Pj-DPo

Girder Girder self 1. Elastic. Shorting PL= Pj- Netto section and
launching to Weigth 2. Anchorage draw in (Dpo+DpR) Ideal section
pillar 3. Tendon Friction (ducting has been
DP0
grouting)
1. Relaxation (DPR)

Slab deck Girder self 1. Elastic. Shorting Po= Pj- Netto section and
Concrete weigth+diapra 2. Anchorage draw in (Dpo+DpR+Dpc Ideal section
Casting ghma 3. Tendon Friction +Dpsh) (ducting has been
Slab deck DP0
grouting
concrete 1. Relaxation (DPR)
(DPc, DPsh)

## 5 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 5

Example Prestress girder Bridge
Working Stage Loads LOP Pre-Stress Secton Properties
(Loss of Prestress) Force
Service stage Girder self 1. Elastic. Shorting Pe= Pj- Netto section
(Final Stage) weight+Conc 2. Anchorage draw in (Dpo+DpR+D and
rete slab 3. Tendon Friction pc+Dpsh) Ideal T
deck DP0
section
+ADL+Live 1. Relaxation (DPR) (ducting has
Load 2. Creep+Shringkage been
(DL+ADL+LL) (DPc, DPsh) grouting, Slab
deck has been
composite)

## 6 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 6

Netto Section Properties
Index: B= bruto, n = netto, t= top, b= bottom
Ai
d = ducting
Ai
yi
Crosssect. Area (m2):
Yn,t AB = σ 𝐴𝑖; An=σ 𝐴𝑖 - Ad
Ai Ai
Center gravity crosssection (c.g.c):
σ 𝐴𝑖 ×𝑦𝑖 −𝐴𝑑×𝑦𝑑
Yn,t =
𝐴𝑛
yd

Yn,b
Ai
- Momen innersia:
In =σ 𝐼𝑖𝑜 + σ 𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2 − (𝐼𝑜𝑑 + 𝐴𝑑 × ∆𝑦𝑑 2)
Whic is:
Ai Ai
Ioi= inersia element trough it’s center
gravity
Ai
1 1
𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 12 𝑏 × ℎ3 h 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 36 𝑏 × ℎ3
1
𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 64
𝜋𝐷4
Dy = yi - yn,t
7 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 7
Ideal (transform) Section Properties
Index: i= ideal, t= top, b= bottom; T =Tendon
Ai
yi Crossect. Area (m2):
Ai = σ 𝐴𝑖 + (𝑛 − 1) × 𝐴𝑇 N= Est /Ec
Ai
Yi,t
Ai Ai Center gravity crosssection (c.g.c):
σ 𝐴𝑖×𝑦𝑖 +(𝑛−1)𝐴𝑇×𝑦𝑇
Yi,t =
𝐴𝑖

yT Momen innersia:
Ai
Ii =σ 𝐼𝑖𝑜 + σ(𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2) + (𝑛 − 1)𝐴𝑇 × ∆𝑦𝑇 2
Yi,b
Whic is:
Ai Ai Ioi= inersia elementtrough it’s center gravity
AT 1 1
Ai 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 12 𝑏 × ℎ3 h 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 36 𝑏 × ℎ3
b
1 4
𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 64𝜋𝐷
tendon Dy = yi-yi,t

## 8 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 8

Ideal (transform) Section Properties
Ai
Index: i= ideal, t= top, b= bottom; T =Tendon
yi Crosssect. Area (m2):
Ai
Ai = σ 𝐴𝑖 + (𝑛 − 1) × 𝐴𝑇
Yi,t
Ai Ai Center gravity crosssection (c.g.c):
σ 𝐴𝑖×𝑦𝑖 +(𝑛−1)𝐴𝑇×𝑦𝑇
Yi,t =
𝐴𝑖
Momen innersia:
yT
In =σ 𝐼𝑜𝑖 + 𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2 + (𝑛 − 1)(𝐼𝑜𝑇 × 𝐴𝑇 × ∆𝑦𝑇 2)
Ai

## Yi,t Whic is:

Ioi= inersia element trough it’s center gravity
1 1
Ai Ai 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 12 𝑏 × ℎ3 h 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 36 𝑏 × ℎ3
AT b
1
Dy = yi-yi,t
Ai 𝐼𝑜𝑖 = 4
64𝜋𝐷
Ai

tendon

## 9 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 9

0,8 example
0,64
0,07 Fc’ = 42 Mpa
0,13 E strand= 198.000 Mpa
0,12 Øducting = 0,084 m
1 tendon = 19 strand A1T = 24,13 cm2
Ø 1 strand= 1,27 cm

1,28

0,2
0,1

0,25

0,25

0,7

## 10 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 10

0,64 Pre-calculation
0,8

Ai 0,07
0,2
Ai 0,13 YT,b
0,1
Yt
Ai Ai Pre-calculation : center gravity of group tendon (YT,b)
0,12
Center gravity of 1st row (y1)= 0,1 m
Center gravity of 2nd row (y2)= 0,3 m
yT Number of tendon 1st row (N1) = 3
1,28
Ai Number pf tendon 2nd row (N2) = 1 thus:
Yt 𝐴𝑇×𝑁1×𝑦1+𝐴𝑇×𝑁2×𝑦2 𝑁1 × 𝑦1 + 𝑁2 × 𝑦2
YT,b = 𝐴𝑇×𝑁1+𝐴𝑇×𝑁2
→ YT,b =
𝑁1 + 𝑁2
Ai Ai 0,25 3×0,1+1×0,3
YT,b = = 0,15 m
3+1
Ai 0,25
yT,b YT,t= 0,25-0,15+(1,28+0,25+0,12+0,13+0,07)= 1,95 m

## 11 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 11

0,64
Netto Section Properties
0,8 1. Ducting
ᴓ ducting = 0,084 m
A8 0,07
Numb of ducting (N) = 4
1
A7 0,13 Area Ducting = 4 × 𝜋 × 0,08422 × 4 = 0,02216 𝑚2
Yt c. g ducting (yd) = 1,95 m
A6 A5 0,12
2. C.g.c El. bi hi shape f Ai (m2) yit A xY i i
(i) (m) (m) (fi)* fixbixhi (m)
1 0,7 0,25 1 0,175 1,975 0,346
1,95 2 0,25 0,25 0,5 0,03125 1,683 0,053
1,28
A4 3 0,25 0,25 0,5 0,03125 1,683 0,053
4 0,2 1,65 1 0,33 1,025 0,338
Yt
5 0,25 0,12 0,5 0,015 0,24 0,004
6 0,25 0,12 0,5 0,015 0,24 0,004
A3 A2 0,25 7 0,8 0,13 1 0,104 0,135 0,014
8 0,64 0,07 1 0,0448 0,035 0,002
A1i 0,25 SAi= 0,746 SAixYi= 0,812
0,15
*0,5 for
An= SAi – Ad = 0,746-0,02216 = 0,724 m2 1,0 for
0,25 0,2 0,25 σ 𝐴𝑖 ×𝑦𝑖 −𝐴𝑑×𝑦𝑑 0,812−0,264×1,95
Yn,t = = =1,0615 m
𝐴𝑛 0,724

## 12 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure

Netto Section Properties
0,64 3. Momen inersia
0,8 elmt bi hi Ai (m2) yit Ioi* DY Dy2 Ai xDy2
(i) Fi*bi*hi
A8 0,07
1 0,7 0,25 0,175 1,975 0,000911 1,49 2,23 0,390751
A7 2 0,25 0,25 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 1,20 1,45 0,045196
0,13
3 0,25 0,25 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 1,20 1,45 0,045196
Yt
4 0,2 1,65 0,33 1,025 0,074869 0,54 0,30 0,097758
A6 A5 0,12 5 0,25 0,12 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,24 0,06 0,000869
6 0,25 0,12 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,24 0,06 0,000869
7 0,8 0,13 0,104 0,135 0,000146 -0,35 0,12 0,012431
1,95
1,28 8 0,64 0,07 0,0448 0,035 1,83E-05 -0,45 0,20 0,0089
A4 0,746 SIoi= 0,076 S(Ai xDy2)= 0,602
* 1
Yb 𝐼𝑜 = 12 𝑏 × ℎ3 1
𝐼𝑜 = 36 𝑏 × ℎ3
Dy = yi - yn,t
A3 A2 0,25
Ad = 0,02216m2, Dyd = Yn,t - yd,t = 1,0615-1,95 = -0,89 m
A1i 0,25 Dyd2 = 0,7894 m
0,15
In =σ 𝐼𝑜 + σ(𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2) − (𝐼𝑜𝑑 + 𝐴𝑑 × ∆𝑦𝑑 2)
1
0,25 0,2 0,25 In = 0,076 + 0,602 – (64 x p x 0,0844 + 0,02216x0,7894)
= 0,386 m4

## 13 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 13

Ideal Section Properties
0,64
0,8
1. Tendon
1 tendon = 19 strand
A8 0,07 Ø strand = 1,27 cm
AT = 19 x ¼ x p x 1,272 = 24,056 cm2
A7 0,13 AT = 0,0024 m2
Yt c.g tendon yT,t = 1,95 m
A6 A5 0,12 Volume weigth pre stress concrete (Wc) = 25,5 kN/m3
Ec = 0,043*Wc1,5* 𝑓𝑐′ = 0,043*2560* 41,5 =35880 Mpa
Es = 200.000 Mpa
1,95 200.000
1,28 N = 35880 = 5,51
A4

## Yt El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi

(i) fixbixhi (m) (i) fixbixhi (m)
1 0,175 1,975 0,346 5 0,015 0,24 0,004
A3 A2 0,25 2 0,03125 1,683 0,053 6 0,015 0,24 0,004
3 0,03125 1,683 0,053 7 0,104 0,135 0,014
A1i 0,25
0,15 4 0,33 1,025 0,338 8 0,0448 0,035 0,002
SAi 0,746 SAixYi= 0,812

## 14 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 14

Ideal Section Properties
0,64
El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi
0,8
(i) fixbixhi (m) (i) fixbixhi (m)
A8 0,07
1 0,175 1,975 0,346 5 0,015 0,24 0,004
A7 2 0,03125 1,683 0,053 6 0,015 0,24 0,004
0,13
Yt 3 0,03125 1,683 0,053 7 0,104 0,135 0,014
A6 A5 4 0,33 1,025 0,338 8 0,0448 0,035 0,002
0,12
SAi 0,746 SAixYi= 0,812

1,95
1,28
A4 2. Crossect. Area
Yt Ai = σ 𝐴𝑖 + (𝑛 − 1) × 𝐴𝑇
Ai = 0,746 +(5,51-1)x0,00224= 0,757 m2
A3 A2 0,25 3. Center gravity crosssection (c.g.c):
σ 𝐴𝑖 ×𝑦𝑖 +(𝑛−1)𝐴𝑇×𝑦𝑇
A1i 0,25
Yi,t = 𝐴𝑖
0,15
0,812+ 𝑛−1 0,0024×1,95
Yi,t = 0,757
= 1,044 m
0,25 0,2 0,25

## 15 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 15

Ideal Section Properties
0,64
elmt Ai (m2) yit Ioi* DY Dy2 Ai xDy2
0,8
(i) fixbixhi
A8 0,07 1 0,175 1,975 0,000911 0,93 0,87 0,151593
2 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 0,64 0,41 0,012762
A7 0,13 3 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 0,64 0,41 0,012762
Yt 4 0,33 1,025 0,074869 -0,02 0,00 0,000123
A6 A5 0,12 5 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,80 0,65 0,009703
6 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,80 0,65 0,009703
7 0,104 0,135 0,000146 -0,91 0,83 0,085986
1,95
8 0,0448 0,035 1,83E-05 -1,01 1,02 0,045635
A4
1,28 0,746 SIoi= 0,076 SAi xDy2= 0,328
Dy = yi-yi,t
Yt
Momen innersia:
Ii =σ 𝐼𝑖𝑜 + σ(𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2) + (𝑛 − 1)𝐴𝑇 × ∆𝑦𝑇 2
A3 A2 0,25
Ii = 0,076 + 0,328 + (5,51 − 1) × 0,0024 × (1,95 − 1,044)2
A1i 0,25 Ii =0,4133 m4
0,15

## 16 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 16

Panjang bentang jembatan(L) = 40 m

## Berat jenis beton

pra tegang (Wc) =
2560 kg/m3

## 17 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 17

Ideal Section Properties
1,18
El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi El. Ai (m2) yit Ai x Yi
(i) fixbixhi (m) (i) fixbixhi (m)
A8 0,2 1 0,175 1,975 0,346 5 0,015 0,24 0,004
2 0,03125 1,683 0,053 6 0,015 0,24 0,004
A7 0,13 3 0,03125 1,683 0,053 7 0,104 0,135 0,014
Yt 4 0,33 1,025 0,338 8 0,236 0,1 0,00236
A6 A5 0,12 SAi 0,938 SAixYi= 0,925
2. Crossect. Area
Ai = σ 𝐴𝑖 + (𝑛 − 1) × 𝐴𝑇
1,95 Ai = 0,938+(5,5-1)x0,00224= 0,9483 m2
1,28
A4

## Yt 3. Center gravity crosssection (c.g.c):

σ 𝐴𝑖 ×𝑦𝑖 +(𝑛−1)𝐴𝑇×𝑦𝑇
Yi,t = 𝐴𝑖
A3 A2 0,25
0,925+ 𝑛−1 0,0024×1,95
Yi,t = = 0,997 m
A1i 0,9483
0,25
0,15

## 18 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 18

Ideal Section Properties
1,18 elmt Ai (m2) yit Ioi* DY Dy2 Ai xDy2
(i) fixbixhi
A8 0,2 1 0,175 1,975 0,000911 1,11 1,23 0,214518
2 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 0,82 0,67 0,020783
A7 0,13 3 0,03125 1,683 0,000109 0,82 0,67 0,020783
Yt 4 0,33 1,025 0,074869 0,16 0,02 0,008152
A6 A5 5 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,63 0,39 0,005913
0,12
6 0,015 0,24 0,000012 -0,63 0,39 0,005913
7 0,104 0,135 0,000146 -0,73 0,54 0,055853
8 0,236 0,1 7,8666 .10-4 -0,90 0,81 0,19024
1,95
1,28 0,746 SIoi= 0,077 SAi xDy2= 0,522
A4
Dy = yi-yi,t
Yt
Momen innersia:
Ii =σ 𝐼𝑖𝑜 + σ(𝐴𝑖 × ∆𝑦2) + (𝑛 − 1)𝐴𝑇 × ∆𝑦𝑇 2
A3 A2 0,25
Ii = 0,077 + 0,522 + (5,5 − 1) × 0,0024 × (1,95 − 0,997)2
A1i 0,25
0,15 Ii =0,6089 m4

120 cm

20 cm

100 cm

30 cm

50 cm

## Diameter tendon : 58,0 mm (bar tendon) Netto section propreties

Diameter ducting : 0,1 m Ideal section properties
Es = 200.000 Mpa
Fc’ = 42 Mpa
20 Pre-Stress Concrete Structure 20