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## D. Rama (I Year M. Tech. CI)

CB. EN. P2CIN17006
Contents
• The incapability of the instrument to measure, record or
control the input signal in undistorted form is called loading
effect.
• Under practical conditions, when an instrument of lower
sensitivity is used with a heavier load, it will have some error in
the measurement .
• Ideally the resistance of a Voltmeter is infinite so that
voltmeter does not alter circuit current.
• When the resistance of the Voltmeter is less than the circuit
resistance, it will act as a shunt path to current therefore the
voltage drop across the circuit resistance will be less. This
effect is known as Loading Effect in Voltmeter.
• It will affect the accuracy of the Voltmeter reading.
Calculate the voltage across 50kΩ Resistor using Voltmeters A
and B with sensitivity 1000 Ω /V and 20,000 Ω /V respectively.

## Voltage drop across

• ቅ = 50 V (True Value)
50KΩ Resistor

## • Case 1: Using Voltmeter A

Voltage drop across
ൠ = 30 V
Req Resistor

## • Case 2: Using Voltmeter B

Voltage drop across
ൠ = 48.37 V
Req Resistor
• When an ammeter is placed into the circuit to measure the current I,
we assume it will indicate the correct current.
• This would be a correct assumption if the ammeter had an internal
resistance of zero ohms.
• However, since all ammeters have some internal resistance, there will
always be some loading effect on the circuit.
(a) Current across resistors without ammeter (b) Current across 3Ω resistor using ammeter