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The Language of Research

Characteristics of the Language

of Research
 Research is searching for truth in a
systematic way or in a scientific method.
Doing things in this manner means going to
a world of science that deals mostly with
facts, principles, theories, generalization,
methods and the like. Existing within the
bounds of science that is quite different from
other subjects because of its inclination to
special or abstract terms.
 Endowed with special knowledge;
meaning, ideas that are applicable to a
particular purpose, you possess a certain
expertise that only people belonging to
your area of specialization find
understandable and easy to relate
themselves with. For non-researchers,
unless the purposely read books on
research, the language of research appears
as a jargon.
Research-Language Formation
1. Multisyllable words
Some terms reflecting the inherent characteristics
of research as a scientific method are made up of a
number of syllables such as the following :

 Theoretical-concepts
 Empirical-observable
 Probabilistic-uncertain
 Quantitative-numerical
 Scientific-systematic
 Inquiry-investigation
 2.Types and forms of questions
Research has its own types of questions. It has to
ask questions that describe, show relationships,
and give reasons behind the occurrence of
In qualitative research, questions to be asked must
elicit views, emotions, or opinions of people.
Quantitative research, on the other hand, ask
questions about the exact number, percentages, of
frequency of things
Informative question rather than yes-or-no
questions are appropriate questions to ask in
 3. Span of time covered by the research.
Owing to the length of time-months or years-
that takes place in a study, research introduced
the terms cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
Cross-sectional study – involves a one-time
collection of data in a span of time.
Longitudinal study- repeated collection of data for
the purpose of finding out of changes of pattern
over time.
 4.Variable relationships
Concerning itself with whether or not a variable has
effects on another variable, based on cause-effect
relationships and on a certain patter that may result in
positive or negative relationship, research came out
with the following terms for variables:
a. Independent variables- the cause of something
b. Dependent variables- bears the effect of the
independent variable
c. Extraneous variables-extra or unexpected variable
cropping up outside the research design
d. Confounding variables- unstable variable
 5. Formulation of Hypotheses
Forming of hypothesis indicates the stages of a
research. It signals the occurrence of a scientific.
Hence there are two terms:
a. Null hypotheses- for guessing negative results of
the research.
b. Alternative hypotheses- for positive results.
 6. Data
Theses are facts, information, or logically derived
forms of knowledge that are called qualitative
data if they are verbally and subjectively
expressed; quantitative data, if they are
numerically and objectively expressed.
 7. Unit of Analysis
The subject or object of your research study
makes up one major entity and this may either be
one of the following:
a. Individual, group, artifact
b. (painting, book, travelogue)
c. Geographical unit
d. (municipality, province, country)
e. Social interaction
f. (husband-wife, teacher-learner, employer-
Operation Definition
 Meaning of Operation Definition
Concepts, theories, principles, assumption,
predictions and other abstracts terms are the
catchwords of research.
A theoretical definition prevents readers from
immediately seeing the relationship or relevance of
things involved in the research.
Operation Definition- is making the concept or the
thing meaningful by specifying the way your research
should measure such concept. It defines the basic
concept through the operation used or research
activity involved to measure the concept.
 Guidelines in Giving Operation Definitions
1. Have a clear understanding of the concept focused
on by your study before you begin defining such
concepts operationally.
2. Base your operational definition on the concept of
your study.
3. Express the operational definition in only one
4. Let the operational definition explain the
measurement of variable clearly.
5. Construct an operational definition that other
researchers can understand, assess, and repeat in
other research studies.
 Examples of Operational Definitions
1. Defining Temperature
 Theoretical/Conceptual Definition: heat flowing
between infinite reservoirs.
 Operational Definition: define temperature in
relation to operations with gas thermometers
2. Defining Electric Current
 Theoretical/Conceptual Definition: force between
two parallel conductors.
 Operational Definitions: mention the device, current
balance, to measure, electric current
3. Defining Anger
 Theoretical/Conceptual Definition: intangible; not
directly measured by observation.
 Operation Definition: mention the way of location
Virgo in the sky (repeatable process)
4. Defining Virgo
 Theoretical/Conceptual Definition: constellation of
stars (cannot tell the process of formation)
 Operational Definition: mention the way of locating
Virgo in the sky (repeatable process)

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