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As you sit and listen to my lesson,

are you doing WORK?


Let’s talk about
WORK, in a
scientific sense!
HOW DOES “WORK” WORK?

Work is done if the object you push moves a distance in


the direction towards which you are pushing it.
HOW DOES “WORK” WORK?

Work is done if the object you push moves a distance in


the direction towards which you are pushing it.
HOW DOES “WORK” WORK?

No work is done if the force you exert does not make the
object move.
HOW DOES “WORK” WORK?

No work is done if the force


you exert does not make the
object move in the same
direction as the force you
exerted.
CONDITIONS

To Do Work,
Forces should act on an
object and must cause
Displacements in the same
direction as the force is
applied.
CALCULATING WORK

Work is done when the force (F) applied to the object


causes the object to have a displacement (d) in the same
direction as the force applied. The symbol for work is a
capital W. The work done by a force can be calculated
as:

W = Fd
JOULE AS THE UNIT FOR WORK

The unit, joule (J) is


named after the English
physicist James
Prescott Joule. This is
also a unit of energy.
One (1) joule is equal to
the work done or energy
expended in applying a
force of 1 N through a
distance of 1 m.
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1

Suppose a woman is pushing a grocery cart with a 500 N


force along the 7 m aisle, how much work is done
pushing the cart from one end of the aisle to the other?
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2

A port worker lifted a sack


of rice onto his shoulder
with a force of 300 N at a
height of 1.5 m.
(a) How much work did he
do?
With the sack of rice in his
shoulder. The worker
walked a distance of 10m.
(b) How much work did he
do as he carried the sack
of rice? While walking?
CALCULATING WORK

In doing a work (W) in a vertical orientation, the force (F)


is equivalent to the weight of the object which is a
product of its mass (m) and the acceleration due to
gravity (g) while the distance is the height (h).

W = Fd
W = mgh
SAMPLE PROBLEM 3

An encyclopedia book of mass 1 kg is on the floor. If the


book is lifted from the floor to the top shelf which is 2 m
from the floor, how much work is done on the book?
SAMPLE PROBLEM 4

A deflated hot-air balloon weighs a total of 8000 N. Filled


with hot air, the balloon rises to a height of 1000 m. How
much work is accomplished by the hot air?
SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT…

1. Is it possible to apply a force on something without


doing a work? Give one situation.
2. Which requires more work, lifting a marble to a
distance above the ground or carrying a
hardbound science book? Explain your answer.
3. A student carries her bag and a teacher picks up
his pen from the floor. Who do you think had more
work done? Why?
4. Twins A and B did the same amount of work.
However, twin A covered a longer distance parallel
to the force applied. Which of the twins exerted
more force? Why?
1. How much work is done when a
35 N force pushes a cart 4 m?

2. A weightlifter lifts a 500 N barbell


from the floor to a height of 2.2 m.
How much work does he do?
3. A box with a mass of 50 kg on a
concrete floor is pushed horizontally to
the right at a constant speed with a force
of 200 N to a distance of 5 m. how much
work is done by the applied force.
4. A toy cart is pulled parallel to the floor
by a boy with a force magnitude 5 N to
the right at a distance of 2 m. how much
work is done by the boy pulling the cart?
Pawweerrr!!!
with great

comes great responsibility


WHAT IS POWER?

Power (P) is the rate of doing work or the rate of using


energy. That is, work (W) over time (t).

W
P=
t
Power is measured in joules per second (J/s) or watts
(W).
OTHER UNITS

Other related units are:

1 joule/second (J/s) = 1 watt (W)


1000 watts = 1 kilowatt (kW)
1 horsepower (hp) = 746 watts

Although horsepower is not an SI unit,


it is often used in measuring the power
of engines.
SAMPLE PROBLEM 5

Two students are asked to transfer the teacher’s table to


a corner at a distance of 5m. If their combined force is
100 N and they finish the job in 10s, what is the power
output in watts?
SAMPLE PROBLEM 6

How much power was expended in watts and in


horsepower if a school elevator working for 100 000 J
brought the students from the ground floor to the third
floor of the building in 5 s.
SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT…

1. A sedan is less powerful than a sports car. What


does this mean?
2. A big boy and a small boy ran up the stairs within
the same amount of time. Who has more power?
Why?
3. RJ and JR raced to the second floor of the school
building. RJ used the spiral stairs, while JR used
the standard stairs. If they have the same mass
and arrived at the same time, who expended more
power? Why?
Practice Exercise

1. What is the power of a swimmer who


uses 1 100 kJ in an hour?
2. An elevator lifts 10 people up 12
floors. Each person weighs
approximately 60 kg. Each floor is 3 m
high, and it takes 15 s to reach the
12th floor from the ground without
stopping. How much work does the
elevator do? How much power does
the elevator use?
Practice Exercise

3. Isay used 150 N of horizontal force to


move a box from one corner of the
classroom to a distance of 4.5 m to the
right. It took her 56 s to finish the work.
Kiko pushed an identical box using the
same force toward the same position. It
took him 48 s to do it. Compare the
powers of Isay and Kiko in pushing the
box.
Practice Exercise

4. A boy whose mass is 45.0 kg runs up


25 steps, each step 0.300 m high in 50.0
seconds. Find the power in watts
expended by the boy.
CALCULATING POWER

Power (P) can also be computed by multiplying the


body’s force (F) and its velocity (v).

P = Fv
Differentiate Kinetic & Potential Energy
POTENTIAL ENERGY

Potential energy is the energy stored in a body.


Nonmoving bodies or objects are capable of doing
something or changing position because of stored
energy.

PE = potential energy (J)


m = mass (kg)

PE = mgh g = acceleration due to


gravity (m/s2)
h = height above earth’s
surface (m)
TYPES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY

GRAVITATIONAL
POTENTIAL
ENERGY
ELASTIC
POTENTIAL
ENERGY
CHEMICAL
POTENTIAL
ENERGY
TYPES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY

GRAVITATIONAL Potential energy due to an


POTENTIAL object’s position
ENERGY
TYPES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY

ELASTIC Potential energy due to


POTENTIAL compression or expansion
ENERGY of an elastic object.
TYPES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY

CHEMICAL Potential energy stored


POTENTIAL within the chemical bonds
ENERGY of an object.
SAMPLE PROBLEM

A 1kg durian fruit was raised from the ground. How much
potential energy does it have when lifted 10.0 m? 20.0
m? 30.0 m?
CONVERSION OF PE TO KE

When stored energy begins to move, the object now


transfers from potential energy to kinetic energy.
POTENTIAL ENERGY

Kinetic energy is the energy of a body in motion. It


increases when the object moves faster.

KE = potential energy (J)


KE =½mv 2 m = mass (kg)
v = velocity of the moving
object
SAMPLE PROBLEM

A 30 kg motorcycle is travelling with a velocity of 5 m/s.


What is its kinetic energy at this velocity? How about if
the velocity is 8 m/s? 10 m/s?

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