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ALL INDIA

MUSLIM LEAGUE
(AIML)
1
Founded in 1906
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS

 Account for the emergence of All-


India Muslim League in 1906 and
assess its importance in Indian
Politics between 1906 and 1913.
(2004)

2
BACKGROUND
 Congress(dominated by Hindus) failed to gain
confidence of Muslims / minorities

 Acidtest of Sir Syed’s apprehensions - Congress


announcement of “Sowdeshy Movement” –
against Partition of Bengal (1905)

 Fissuresamong the Indian society were deep


rooted – religion, tradition and culture, norms
and values, etc. – one platform was not possible
3
FACTORS FOR
FORMATION
OF
AIML
4
SEPARATE IDENTITY OF MUSLIMS
 Conflicting
interests B/W Hindus and Muslims
– Congress couldn’t safeguard Muslim interests

 SirSyed’s apprehensions / contentions proved


by the events and circumstances

 Sir
Syed’s opposition to joint electorates
(demand for separate electorates) was the first
seed to culminate in the formation of AIML

 IndianCouncils Act, 1892, system of electorate


proved futile for Muslims – no Muslim
candidate could obtain any seat up to 1906 5
CONGRESS ATTITUDE MUSLIMS
 Safeguarded Hindu interests – no consideration
for justifiable rights of Muslims / other
communities
 Congress Opposed Partition of Bengal (1905)
 The partition by the British was on administrative
grounds – not a Muslim demand intense reaction of
Congress / Hindus an eye opener for Muslims
 Congress announced “Sowdeshi Movement” –serious
Hindu – Muslim riots

 Therefore,
a separate political organization for 6
Muslims was found necessary & formed
CANDID ATTITUDE OF LORD MINTO
 Simla Deputation (1905) – Muslim leaders

 Lord Minto was positive – encouraged Muslims


to concentrate their energies on separate
electorates

 Hindu historians argue that ML was created on


official instigation to break Congress
dominance & weaken Indian freedom
movement. However, no evidence provided to
substantiate the claim. 7
AIMS AND
OBJECTIVES
OF
AIML
8
PHASE-I: LOYALTY / RIGHTS

 Protect political rights of Muslims in India

 Foster
loyalty to the British and to remove
misunderstandings with the government

 Cooperationwith other communities


without prejudice to above goals

 Secure supremacy of Urdu language 9


PHASE-II: SELF GOVT. / UNITY
 System
of self government under British
Government

 Newconstitution passed on 23-03-1909 (Minto


Morley Reforms)

 Good relations with other communities to work


for similar goals

 Hindu-Muslim Unity leading to Lucknow Pact –


Khilafat Movement 10
PHASE-III: INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE

 1939 onwards

 Struggle for free / independent state

11
ACHIEVEMENTS
OF
AIML
12
ACHIEVEMENTS - I
A separate political platform for Muslims

 Political
leadership [Jinnah – Member of
Viceroy’s Executive Council & Indian Council
Ministers – Ahmedul Mulk & S. Hassan
Bilgarami]

 Filled up the vacuum of Sir Syed Ahmed

 Separateelectorates through Minto-Morley


Reforms (1909)
13
ACHIEVEMENTS - II
 Appointment of Muslim judges in High /
Supreme Courts – a Muslim demand accepted
[Calcutta – SHARIFUDDIN; Allahabad
KARAMAT HUSSAIN; Punjab - SHAH DIN]

 Approval of Trust Bill [Trust a social entity –


works for social benefits. Many Trusts in India
denied benefits to Muslims – the Act extended
benefits to Muslims

 Creation of Pakistan
14
MINTO-MORLEY
REFORMS
1909
15
INDIAN COUNCILS ACT, 1909
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS

 Minto-Morely Reform was a “tool of


change” in the political system of India.
Discuss it with special reference to the
demands of Simla Deputation. (2007)

16
INTRODUCTION
 Tension between Congress and AIML after
Partition of Bengal (1905)
 Muslims demanded ‘Separate Electorate’
during Simla Deputation (16-10-1906) prior to
creation of Muslim League
 AIML intensified efforts for the said demand
and convinced British who brought reforms in
the shape of Indian Councils Act 1909
 Approvedby British Parliament & enforced on
23-03-1909, the Act further reformed legislative
councils 17
SALIENT FEATURES-I
 Muslims’ demand of ‘Separate Electorate’
accepted – transformed nature of politics in
India (national to communal)

 Modus operandi for elections – partly direct


elections and partly indirect nominations

 Smallnon official majority allowed at


Provincial level while official majority retained
at Centre
18
SALIENT FEATURES-II
 Members of Legislative Councils could:
 Raise questions relating to administration and
policy; and

 Discuss budget item wise

 Provincial Councils expanded

 W & E Bengal, UP and Madras = 50

 Punjab =30)
19
SALIENT FEATURES-III

 60 members added to Central Legislative


Council

 Viceroy’s Executive Council expanded

20
CONGRESS / HINDU REACTION
 Hindu politicians and Congress launched a
campaign against ‘Separate Electorates’

 Congress in 1910 Session demanded its


withdrawal

 All Hindu and several British observers


believed communal electorates a breach of
democratic principles and sowing seeds for
divisions in the society / polity

 Hindu Muslims relations further deteriorated 21


ROLE OF MUSLIM LEAGUE
 Firstachievement of AIML within two years of
the establishment

 BritishGovt. for the first time accepted that in


India where different nationalities live Western
type of democracy was inapplicable – voice of
Sir Syed became reality

 The status of AIML established as the only


political organization representing Muslims
22
IMPORTANCE FOR MUSLIMS - I
 Muslims’main demand of Separate Electorate
was accepted in the provinces where Provincial
Councils existed
 Muslims were given double vote (they could
vote separately for Muslims and also for
general constituencies)
 Legaland constitutional status of Muslims in
India as a separate entity was accepted &
established
 Created great political awareness among the
23
Indians / Muslims
IMPORTANCE FOR MUSLIMS - II
 Congress hadn’t accepted AIML / Muslims as
separate entity – now they were (after some
time) willing to discuss issues to reduce Hindu
– Muslim tension
 conference of 60 Hindus and 40 Muslims held at
Allahabad on 01-01-1911 to discus such issues

 Congress realized that AIML was an important


factor to be reckoned with in Indian politics
 Reforms gave impetus to the constitutional
development in India – first time direct
elections were introduced albeit partly 24
CONCLUSION
 Reforms played significant role in the
constitutional history / development in India

 But
for Muslims they were of paramount
importance and shaped their political fate

 Had there been no provision of ‘Separate


Electorate’ least chances of Lucknow Pact
(1916) consequently no concept of Pakistan
Resolution and ultimately Pakistan itself!
25
LUKNOW PACT
1916
26
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS
 Describe
the main contents and relative
importance of the Lucknow Pact and Delhi
Muslim Proposals and their respective
impact on the subsequent political
developments in India. (2011)
 Illustrate
the role of Quaid-e-Azam for
protecting the constitutional rights of
Muslims of the subcontinent from 1916-
1933? (2009)
 Quaid-e-Azam was the ambassador of
“Hindu-Muslim Unity”. Discuss it in
perspective of Lukhnow Pact and what 27
future vision depicted from the pact? (2008)
INTRODUCTION
 An
episode of great political and constitutional
magnitude
 Example of Jinnah’s sagacious statesmanship –
holding dual membership of Congress and AIML
acted as an apostle of Hindu – Muslims unity
A bridge to narrow down the gulf between
Hindus and Muslims
A step towards establishment of a bi-national
state and self govt. in India when Congress +
AIML agreed over the political & constitutional
future of India
28
EVENTS LEADING TO THE PACT
 Meeting of 60 Hindus and 40 Muslims held at Allahabad
on 01-01-1911

 Congress annual session at Karachi (Dec. 1913)


Bhopindra Nath Basu positive gestures towards Muslims
and stressed for better understanding / Cooperation

 1913 - Jinnah jointed ML while retaining Congress


membership–Ambassador of Unity

 On 31-12-1915 Congress and ML held sessions at Bombay


– committees set up to explore ways of cooperation

 Joint session of Congress and AIML in Dec. 1916 at


Lucknow
 Jinnah presided ML and made a strong plea for unity. 29
Congress leader Ambica Charan Manjumdar reciprocated
SALIENT
FEATURES

 Settlement of Communal Issues


30 (Hindus vs. Muslims)
 Demands from the British
(Congress + AIML vs. British Govt.)
SETTLEMENT OF COMMUNAL ISSUES-I
 Congress conceded the Muslim / ML demand of
Separate Electorate –

 Not only where they existed earlier (under 1909 Act)


but in Punjab and CP as well

 But, Muslims were to lose the double advantage of


vote in general elections (in vogue since 1909)

 Muslim Representation in Central


Legislative Council to constitute 1/3rd of the
elected members 31
SETTLEMENT OF COMMUNAL ISSUES-II

 Communal veto –

no bill, affecting a particular community,


should be processed in any council, if 75%
of members of that community in the
council oppose it.

32
SETTLEMENT OF COMMUNAL ISSUES-III
‘ Weightage’ Principle
 Muslim minority provinces:
 More share was given to Muslims
 UP (pop. 14% - seats 30%); Madras (pop. 6.15% - seats
14%)

 Muslim majority provinces:


 Hindus were given weightage more than their
population
 In Bengal (25% more) and Punjab (10% more)

 [criticized by certain Muslim politicians and journalists


as they lost majorities in Bengal and Punjab while no 33
real benefit accrued in Muslim minority provinces ]
SETTLEMENT OF COMMUNAL ISSUES-III

 In Provincial Councils Muslims seats were:


 Punjab 50%;
 Bengal 40%;
 Bombay 35%;
 UP 30%;
 Bihar 25%;
 CP 15%;
 Madras 15%;

34
DEMANDS FROM BRITISH GOVT.
 Provincial Autonomy: Max. administrative
and financial autonomy for provinces

 Half
members of Central / Provincial Executive
Councils to be popularly elected

 All
Legislative Councils with substantial
popularly elected majorities (around 80%)

 Separation of Executive from Judiciary


35
SIGNIFICANCE -I
 Notwithstanding the criticism on weightage
principle, for the first time an agreed solution
to the constitutional issues in India was found
by the two parties / communities

 Created trust among Hindus and Muslims


[critical - ultimately of no use]

 Three clear benefits to Muslims


 Separate electorate accepted by Hindus
 More seats / weightage in Muslim minority provinces
 Communal veto [not accepted by British in 1919 Act]
36
 Khilafat Movement
SIGNIFICANCE - II
 Heavyprice paid by Muslims – lost majorities
in Bengal and Punjab

 ForCongress / Hindus – gave strength to the


indigenous cause vis-à-vis the British

 The Hindu-Muslim honeymoon culminated into


 Non-cooperation Movement

 Khilafat Movement
37
CONCLUSION

 Though Hindu – Muslim unity and the influence


of the pact proved short lived yet it greatly
impacted the future course of events in next few
years

 Thepolitical strength of Congress and AIML


increased vis-à-vis the British

38
KHILAFAT
MOVEMENT

39
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS

 Tracethe course of the khilafat movement


and assess its significance for the
development of Muslim nationalism.
(2004)

 Analyse the credit side as well as debit


side of the Khilafat Movement.(1996)

40
INTRODUCTION
 The Movement was an attempt towards
religious consciousness –
 The only movement during British India
which had no direct concern with the affairs
of Muslims of India

 But it greatly influenced subsequent political


strategy of Indian Muslims – in fact
spearheaded Pakistan movement
41
BACKGROUND
 Turkey (Ottoman Empire) – the seat of Muslim Caliphate
joined hands with Germany against allies, headed by
Britain during WW-1 (1914-19)

 British Government sought help of Indians (especially


Muslims) against Germans and its partners and promised
not to deprive Turkey of her territories including holy
places after cessation of hostilities

 Victorious Britain, backed out of the promise – turned


Turkey into fragments like Germany and Austria

 Enraged Muslims launched Khilafat Movement – struggle


for status quo (retention of Khalifah - the institution was
instrumental to the concept of Islamic Ummah) 42
FEATURES
&
DYNAMICS
43
PIONEERS
 Who led the movement?
 Jinnah or Aga Khan?
 Ulemas from Deoband or Nadva?

 Jinnah had opposed Khilafat Movement from


the platform of ML, Why?
 Logic: interference into foreign affairs was against
the charter of the party

 Maulana Mohd Ali Jauhar (Comrade and


Hamdard spread message)

 Maulana Shaukat Ali Jauhar; Abul Kalam;


44
Ulemas from Deoband joined the movement
ALL INDIA KHILAFAT CONFERENCE
 AIKC – a body to protect status of Turkey /
Khilafat – passed resolution in first session in
Dec 1919 at Amritsar asking Muslims to:
 Abstain from victory celebrations;
 Boycott the British goods;
 Not to cooperate with the Government;

 AIKCsent a delegation to the British to acquaint


them with Muslim feelings
 March 1920 delegation reached Europe – addressed
meetings in London / Paris –
 The aim remained unfulfilled. 45
 They came back home without any success
NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT
 Gandhi an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity
 Joined Jauhar brothers
 Motive was to gain strength for ‘self rule’
 Hindus also felt betrayed by the British for their
promise of self rule in India after the War
 Announced Non-cooperation Movement, from
platform of Congress in 1920 Session at
Calcutta, and exhorted Indians to:
 Surrender all British titles
 Refuse to attend any Government function
 Boycott of British law courts
46
 Boycott of forthcoming elections
KHALIFAH & SAWARAJ

 Khalifahand Sawaraj (self rule) became the


two slogans of the movement

 Themovement became very successful and


popular – both Mohammad Ali and Gandhi
toured India – Jauhar even imprisoned.

47
ANTI-CLIMAX
 Death Blows to the Khilafat Movement:
 Gandhi unilaterally called off Non-cooperation
Movement in February 1922. Why?
 After Chauri Chaura (small town in Bombay)
Tragedy when 15 policemen were killed by angry
protestors and skirmishes between people and law
enforcers started – to restore peace

 The emergence of Kamal Ata Turk and


establishment of Modern Turkey after abolishing the
title of Khalifah
48
SIGNIFICANCE
IN THE
HISTORY OF
MUSLIM INDIA
49
A. INDIGENOUS / POPULAR
 Most popular indigenous movement - No direct
relevance to Indian Muslims –but united them and
brought further closer to Indian Hindus

 New type leadership for Muslims: who no longer operated


behind the scene but mingled with masses and prepared
to go behind the bars

 Popular politics replaced drawing room discussions


 Jauhar brothers established Jamia-i-Milli
(National Muslim University) which served as alma
mater for national education
 Critical: Jauhar brothers, under Gandhi’s leadership,
tried to take over Aligarh but could not succeed,
established this institution 50
B. AN EYE OPENER
 An eye opener for Muslims – Hindus and Muslims
made a united / common cause but Gandhi called
off Non-Cooperation Movement unilaterally
 Critical:
 He did it to avert violence but should have taken
Muslims in confidence
 Muslims suspected Gandhi’s intentions – communal
violence ensued which served a death blow to Hindu
Muslim unity

 Involvement
of masses in politics: Indian Muslims
knew how to agitate and how to participate in politics
51
C. RELIGIOUS CONSCIOUSNESS
 Religionwas pivotal for the movement,
subsequently became instrumental for future
politics

 Religious
consciousness turned into political
consciousness

 Involvementof masses in politics: Indian


Muslims knew for the first time how to agitate
and how to participate in politics
52
D. UNITY IN MUSLIM RANKS

 Brought radicals and moderates closer:


 Jauhars and Agha Khan

 While ‘agitators’ were taking out processions in


India, ‘constitutionalists’ / ‘loyalists’ were
writing articles in ‘The Times’ in Britain
 Their aim was identical (only the means were
different)

53
THE DARKER SIDE
 Brought an end to politics of Luknow Pact which
Jinnah had concluded with Congress with great effort
 In the beginning it appeared that Khilafat
Movement and Non-Cooperation Movement were
logical corollaries of the unity period
 Soon the myth of Hindu-Muslim unity broke down!

 Ittook leadership of Muslims from enlightened /


secular leaders like Jinnah to the Muslim clergy,
who hated the secular politics of ML led by Jinnah
 Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Hind, a new political organization
of Muslims emerged on the Indian scene, which later
opposed Pakistan plan 54
CONCLUSION
 Movement couldn’t achieve its stated objectives
but its impact was far reaching on the subsequent
course of the politics of Indian Muslims

 Khilafat
movement indeed spearheaded
Pakistan movement as:
 Muslim masses learnt politics
 They knew that Hindu Muslim unity was a myth
 They started thinking to devise a separate strategy
for themselves
55
MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD
REFORMS
/
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
ACT 1919

56
INTRODUCTION
 Indianshad been demanding and were
promised ‘self rule’ during WW-1 (1914-18)

 ‘SelfRule’ = Governance at Provincial level by


native politicians

 The Act of 1919 fell short of the aspirations of the


Indians

 It offered a limited role to the native politicians


in governance at Provincial level
57
SALIENT FEATURES - I
 Direct
elections for Provincial Councils
 Wider franchise rights
 Lower property qualifications

 Principle of ‘Separate Electorates’ retained


 Extended to Sikhs
 But other minorities still denied

 Inthe constitutional structure Congress-ML


arrangement (Lucknow Pact) was rejected
58
SALIENT FEATURES - II
 The principle of ‘Dyarchy’ introduced
 Certain ( ‘authority’ wise less important ) subjects
(e.g. health, education, etc. but significant in service
delivery) were “transferred” to the Ministers
 Chosen from and responsible to the Provincial
Legislative Council

 More important functions (e.g. police / law & order,


revenue administration, etc.) were retained by
British Governors / Executive Council

 Analysis:limited executive authority given at


Provincial level – objective was to train the 59
natives about the governance
SALIENT FEATURES - III
 Governor to enact any bill, including money
bill, if he “certified” it as essential
 Central
Legislative Council was replaced by a
bicameral legislature:
 Council of State and
 Indian Legislative Assembly with great majority of
elected members

 Analysis:Still no executive authority yielded to


natives at Central level
 Examination / review of the working of the 60
system by a commission after ten years
WORKING OF REFORMS - I
 1920 elections were boycotted by Congress –
criticized / rejected Act of 1919
 Congress splinter National Liberals participated in
elections in most of the provinces

 Muslims did not reject


 But AIML also followed Congress – did not
participate in elections (unity period – 1919 to 1924 -
AIML did not meet independently – worked with Congress)

 After
Khilafat movement, the chapter of
rapprochement (unity period) ended 61
WORKING OF REFORMS - II

 In 1924, AIML demanded sawaraj (‘self rule’) –

 Minority safeguards – separate electorates


 Federal polity
 Muslim majorities in Punjab, Bengal, NWFP not to be
disturbed
 Full provincial autonomy

62
SIGNIFICANCE / IMPLICATIONS

 1919 Act - Not much significant except that for


the first time limited executive authority was
delegated to the natives at provincial level

 Itwidened gulf between Hindus and Muslims to


some extent – Hindu Ministers’ policies
accentuated the gulf

63
CONCLUSION

 In
the beginning the Reforms brought
Congress and AIML further closer but

 Lateron parting of ways started with the


practical experiment of the limited rule

64
NEHRU REPORT
1928

65
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS - I
 Describethe main contents and relative
importance of the Lucknow Pact and Delhi
Muslim Proposals and their respective impact
on the subsequent political developments in
India. (2011)

 Illustrate
the role of Quaid-e-Azam for
protecting the constitutional rights of Muslims
of the subcontinent from 1916-1933? (2009)

 Make a critical comparison of the Nehru Report


and the Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points. (2001)66
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS - II
 Describe
the main recommendations of the
Nehru Report. What was the Muslim reaction to
them?(1993)

 Give a critical evaluation of the Fourteen Points


of the Quaid-i-Azam. (1997)

 Compare and contrast the Nehru Report and


Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points(1996).

67
INTRODUCTION
NEHRU REPORT:
A devise of Motilal Nehru

Ablue print of Hindu polarization against


Muslims and their political rights

A death blow to the concord of Lucknow

A Congress Constitution, demanding Dominion


Status for India, came in August 1928 68
BACKGROUND
 Lord Birkenhead, Secretary of State for India,
criticized Indians – ‘not being able to produce a
unanimous report acceptable to all communities’

 Reply:‘All Parties Conference’ was convened –


AIML joined but later pulled out due to practical
dominance of Hindu Mahasaba – an extremist
organization

 Thecommittee comprised of certain members of


the minority communities, who were not truly
represented by their respective communities 69
SALIENT FEATURES - I
 Dominion Status for India – Parliamentary
form of government

 RejectedFederation on communal basis – in


fact suggested ‘unitary state’

 Provincialautonomy but residuary powers at


centre (provinces - linguistically constituted)

 NWFP be given provincial status

 Sindh separated from Bombay subject to


70
financial viability
SALIENT FEATURES - II
 “Separate electorates” abandoned – in favour
of joint electorate

 Communal veto scrapped

 Universal adult suffrage proposed

 Only1/4th seats for Muslims in Central


Legislature

 Hindi to be official language of India


71
ANALYSIS

 The report regarded Muslim problem as purely


religious and cultural (communal) matter – to be
cured by full religious liberty and cultural
autonomy – ‘Declaration of Rights’

 Muslims knew where they stood in Congress


scheme – In 1916 when they needed AIML
support they accepted ‘Separate Electorate’ - here
they scrapped it!
72
MUSLIM
RESPONSE
73
IMMEDIATE REJECTION - I
 Muslimswere shocked – Members of Central
and Provincial Councils found it impossible to
agree

 AghaKhan doubted if any serious minded


person could imagine the Muslims accepting it

 The immediate result – the two groups of AIML


(created in 1927) came closer to oppose it

74
IMMEDIATE REJECTION - II
 On 12-03-1929 when the Report was debated in
the Indian Legislative Assembly all Muslim
members including Jinnah rejected it

 The Times (13-03-1929) observed:

‘The solidarity of Muslim feeling in the Assembly


was not unexpected, but certainly disturbing to
those trying to represent the Nehru Report as a
demand of a united India. Henceforth, such a claim
must be manifestly absurd’.
75
DELHI PROPOSALS (1929)
 All
India Muslim Conference, presided by
Agha Khan, met in Delhi in 1929 and laid
down following demands:
 Federal system – residuary powers to provinces
 Separate electorates
 Muslim weightage in Hindu Majority provinces
 Muslims due share in Cabinets (Central & Prov.)
 Due share in public service jobs
 Protection & promotion of Muslim education,
culture, etc. 76
MUSLIM
RESPONSE
(CONTD.)

JINNAH’S 14 POINTS
77 (1929)
COMMUNAL ISSUES
 Separate electorates – with possibility of joint
electorates at a later stage

 1/3rd Muslim representation at Centre

 Communal veto demanded

 Weightage – without changing majority into


minority, especially in Bengal & Punjab
78
FEDERALISM
 Bi-national
state with loose Federation of 5
Muslim and 6 Hindu majority provinces

 Complete provincial autonomy - Residuary


powers to provinces

 Change in the Constitution – only with the


consent of the constituent states

 Adult franchise

79
REFORMS IN SINDH / NWFP
 Separation of Sindh from Bombay

 Reformsin NWFP and Balochistan on the


same footing as in other provinces

 Necessary territorial adjustments should


not convert Muslim majorities into
minorities in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP

80
PARTING OF WAYS
 Jinnah’s
fourteen points were repetition of what
Congress had accepted in Lucknow Pact

 Rejectionof these Muslim demands in the


Report created / widened gulf between Hindus
and Muslims (Congress and ML)

 Thiswas turning point in the history of India –


the two communities never united afterwards

81
CONCLUSION

 This
political development convinced the
Muslims that they could not trust
Congress / Hindus

 Henceforth,co-existentialism replaced with


separatism – struggle for freedom

82
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – I
(POINTS OF DIVERGENCE)
LUKNOW NEHRU JINNAH’S 14
PACT REPORT POINTS
SEPARATE ELECTORATES
RECOGNIZED ABANDONED DEMANDED By
By Congress (proposed ‘Joint Jinnah
Electorate’)
PROVINCIAL AUTONOMY
MAXIMUM DEMANDED DEMANDED
AUTONOMY But But
Demanded RESIDUARY RESIDUARY
83
POWERS with POWER with
the Centre Provinces
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – II
(POINTS OF DIVERGENCE)
LUKNOW NEHRU JINNAH’S 14
PACT REPORT POINTS
COMMUNAL VETO
RECOGNIZED ABANDONED DEMANDED By
By Congress By Nehru Jinnah
MUSLIM REPRESENTATION IN
LEGILATIVE COUNCIL
Congress CONCEDED Jinnah
RECOGNIZED Only 1/4th By DEMANDED
1/3rd Muslim Nehru 1/3rd Again 84
Representation
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – III
(POINTS OF DIVERGENCE)
LUKNOW NEHRU JINNAH’S 14
PACT REPORT POINTS
SINDH’S PROVINCIAL STATUS
No Mention DEMANDED if DEMANDED By
financially Jinnah in any
viable case
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
No Mention HINDI Jinnah
DEMANDED
Language rights
85
for Muslims
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – IV
(POINTS OF CONVERGENCE)

LUKNOW NEHRU JINNAH’S 14


PACT REPORT POINTS
FORM OF GOVERNMENT
AGREED DEMANDED REITERATED
Self Govt. at Federal (RPs to Federal (RPs to
Provincial Level Centre) Provinces)
Parliamentary Parliamentary
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
No Mention HINDI Jinnah 86
DEMANDED
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – V
(POINTS OF CONVERGENCE)
LUKNOW NEHRU JINNAH’S 14
PACT REPORT POINTS
NWFP & BALUCHISTAN
No Mention DEMANDED DEMANEDED
reforms for Provincial
Provincial status Status
FRANCHISE
PROPOSED REITERATED
Universal adult Universal adult
87
suffrage suffrage
IQBAL’S ALLAHABAD
ADDRESS

1930
88
PAST YEARS QUESTIONS

 Examine Allama Iqbal’s concept of Muslim Nationalism


in the light of Allahabad address (2005)

 Write detailed notes on any TWO of the following:


(b) Allama Iqbal (2001)

 Analyse political developments between Iqbal’s


Allahabad address and the Lahore Resolution. (1991)

89
INTRODUCTION

A landmark in the history of Muslim


India

 Hewas dubbed as visionary and an


idealist but time proved that his solution
was genuine, possible and practical – to
the complex social, political and religious
problems of India
90
POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF INDIA

 Complex social, cultural, political and linguistic


issues remained in the thought process of
politicians, thinkers, statesmen since centuries

 Inlate 1920s – new socio-political consciousness


of Muslims of India

 Iqbal
was a poet philosopher and a political
thinker – studied Indian scene from different
angles
91
POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF INDIA
 Hewas a critic of modern / territorial
nationalism as understood in Europe
 India,
unlike European countries, inhabited by
several nations mainly Hindus and Muslims
 Dualityof religion and polity / state
(secularism) not applicable in Indian society
 Islam plays significant role in Muslim lives.
They are not willing to submerge their
‘religious identity’
 Hence,to ensure internal harmony settlement
92
of communal question is crucial
THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS - I
 India was not a county but a continent where
many nations live - each with separate identity,
religion, culture, etc.

 Federalism can’t succeed without recognizing


the national identity of Muslims

 Modernnationalism / unitary form of


government simply unthinkable for Muslims

 Redistribution
of India – Muslim India within
India: propounded two nation theory logically
93
THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS
 Residuary powers be given to self governing
units

 Punjab,
NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan
amalgamation – final destiny at least of North
West India

 Thiswill offer peace and security due to


internal balance of power

94
CRITICAL ANALYSIS
 Presented his idea logically and defended it
effectively

 He did not argue for a Muslim State but for a


Muslim block within Indian federation of a very
loose centre equivalent to a confederation

 Bengal and Assam did not appear into his


calculations – later on brought into the scheme
by Muslims
95
CRITICAL ANALYSIS
 [Making of Pakistan by K K Aziz] Some critics
argue that Iqbal never argued for an
independent state and, therefore, should not be
accorded the parentage of Pakistan

 The criticism can be repudiated by Iqbal’s


letters to Jinnah (from May 1936 to Nov. 1937)

 On 28-03-1937, he wrote “it is necessary to


redistribute the country and provide one or more Muslim
states with absolute majorities. Don’t you think the time
for such a demand has already arrived?” 96
SIGNIFICANCE
 Providednew opportunities to think in terms of
a separate homeland for Muslims

 Jinnah gave most serious consideration to


Iqbal’s scheme of partition

 LordLothian, the then Secretary of State for


India appreciated and found it as the only
formula to save India from continual tension
and strife
97
CONCLUSION

 Iqbalwas the one who gave possible solution to


the troubles of India

 Lahore
Resolution finally demanded a separate
homeland which was initially thought by Iqbal

 Iqbalwas indeed an architect and an ideologue


of Pakistan – Jinnah gave reality to his dream
98