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Safety and Health
Why prevent an accident?

1. Legal reasons – Employer must prevent accidents

and ill health at workplace under OSHA 1994

2. Moral issue – suffering for workers and families

- public are aware of their rights
- welfare of employees

3. Business – profitability,productivity and image

Cost of Accidents
Direct Costs

– Medical Costs (including worker’s comp)

– Indemnity Payments

Indirect costs

– Time Lost (by worker and supervisor)

– Schedule delays

– Training new employees

– Cleanup time / equipment repairs

– Legal fees
Hazard is a term associated with a substance,
That is likely to cause injury to a personnel,
One which may lead to loss of property,
products etc;
A substance that might prove fatal to the

Hazard is the potential of a substance to cause damage



Physical Hazards

Excessive noise
Excessive vibration
Lighting-arc welding
Inadequate lighting
Protruding objects
Tripping hazards
Exposure to radiation
Extremely hot or cold surfaces/substances
Inadequate guarding on equipment or machinery
Slippery surfaces
Inappropriate or damaged tools
Exposed Electrical Sources
Physical Hazards

Excessive vibration Inadequate lighting

Tripping hazards
Slip hazard
 Acids- corrosive ,cause bad burnts
 Bases
 Heavy metals – Lead
 Solvents – Petroleum
 Particulates – Asbestos and other fine
dust/fibrous materials, silica.
Chemical Hazards
 Fumes – (noxious gases/vapours)
 Highly reactive chemicals
 Fire and explosion hazards - Explosion, detonation
and conflagration
Acid Asbestos

 Viruses
 Fungi - Mould
 Blood borne pathogen-
Hepatitis B
 Tuberculosis
• Work-related stress, occupational
• excessive working time and
• Violence from outside the
• Bullying, which may include
emotional and verbal abuse
• Sexual harassment
• Mobbing
• Burnout
• Exposure to unhealthy elements
during meetings with business
associates, e.g. tobacco,
uncontrolled alcohol

1. Workstation-sitting,standing
2. Equipment layout and
3. Lighting
4. Tools
Hazard Prevention and Control
Someways to prevent and control hazards are:

 Regularly and thoroughly maintain equipment

 Ensure that hazard correction procedures are in
 Ensure that everyone knows how to use and
maintain personal protective equipment
 Make sure that everyone understands and follows
safe work procedures
 Ensure that, when needed, there is a medical
program tailored to your facility to help prevent
workplace hazards and exposures
Hazard Prevention and Control
After detection, all current and potential hazards must
be prevented, corrected or controlled
Hazard Prevention and Control
Systems used to prevent and control hazards.
 Engineering Controls
 Safe Work Practices
 Administrative Controls
 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
 Systems to Track Hazard Correction
 Preventive Maintenance Systems
 Emergency Preparation
 Medical Programs
Engineering Controls
Engineering controls are based on the following
 If feasible, design to remove the hazard or substitute
something that is not hazardous.
 If removal is not feasible, enclose the hazard to
prevent exposure in normal operations.
 Where complete enclosure is not feasible, establish
barriers or local ventilation to reduce exposure to the
hazard in normal operations.
Safe Work Practices
Depending on the type of industry and the operations, work
practices for specific OSHA standards or to recognized
hazards may be required
 Respiratory Protection.
 Lockout/Tagout.
 Confined Space Entry.
 Hazard Communication.
 Blood borne Pathogens.
 Hearing Conservation.
 Laboratory Chemical Hygiene.
Administrative Controls
These measures include
 additional relief workers,
 exercise breaks and
 rotation of workers
Personal Protective Equipment
 In depth evaluation of the equipment needed to
protect against the hazards at the workplace.
 To set a standard operating procedure for personnel,
 Proper use and maintenance.
 If the equipment fails, exposure will occur.
 Equipment must be properly fitted and maintained.

A worker who mops the floor continuously

List down steps for hazard prevention and control:

Possible solutions:

1. Use lightweight mops

2. Mop with pivot
3. Use glove to improve grip
4. Take rest breaks
5. Provide microfiber mop
6. Long handle
Systems to Track Hazard Correction
An essential part of any safety and health system.
Documentation is important so that management and
employees have a record of the correction.
Preventive Maintenance Systems
 Prevent new hazards from emerging due to equipment
 Reliable scheduling and documentation of
maintenance activity .
Preventive Maintenance

1. Thermographic Scanning

2. Vibration test

3. NDT non destructive test,

crack test
Thermographic scanning
Vibration test
Non Destructive Test
Emergency Preparation
 Emergency planning
 Survey of possible emergencies;
 Planning actions to reduce impact on the workplace;
 Employee information and training;
 Emergency drills as needed.
Medical Programs
 Deliver services that prevent hazards that can cause
illness and injury
 recognize and treat illness and injury.
 limit the severity of work-related injury and illness.
 a basic first aid
 resolution of ergonomic problems.