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Semantic Web

What is semantic web?

“The Semantic Web is an extension of the current
web in which information is given well-defined
meaning, better enabling computers and people to
work in co-operation.“
[Berners-Lee et al, 2001]
Knowledge Representation
• For Semantic Web to function, the computers should have access to
• Structured Collections of Information
• Meaning of this Information
• Sets of Inference Rules/Logic.

These sets of Inference rules can be used to conduct automated reasoning.

• Technological Threads for developing the Semantic Web:

- Ontologies
Today’s Web
• Currently most of the Web content is suitable for human
• Typical uses of the Web today are information seeking,
publishing, and using, searching for people and products,
shopping, reviewing catalogues, etc.
• Dynamic pages generated based on information from
databases but without original information structure found
in databases.
Limitations of the Web Search today

• The Web search results are high recall, low precision.

• Results are highly sensitive to vocabulary.
• Results are single Web pages.
• Most of the publishing contents are not structured to allow
logical reasoning and query answering.
Today’s Web
What is a Web of Data?

Thinking back a bit... 1994


Markup language and means for connecting


Below the file level

Stopped at the text level

What is a Web of Data?


Markup language and means for connecting resources

Below the file level

Below the text level

At the data level

Semantic Web Vision
Machine-processable, global Web
 Assigning unambiguous names (URI)
 Expressing data, including metadata

 Capturing ontologies (OWL)
 Query, rules, transformations,

deployment, application spaces, logic,

proofs, trust (in progress)
Semantic Web and AI?
• No human-level intelligence claims
• As with today’s WWW
• large, inconsistent, distributed
• Requirements
• scalable, robust, decentralised
• tolerant, mediated
• Semantic Web will make extensive use of current AI,
• any advancement in AI will lead to a better Semantic Web
• Current AI is already sufficient to go towards realizing the semantic web vision
• As with WWW, Semantic Web will (need to) adapt fast
Semantic Web & Knowledge Management

• Organising knowledge in conceptual spaces according to

its meaning.
• Enabling automated tools to check for inconsistencies and
extracting new knowledge.
• Replacing query-based search with query answering.
• Defining who may view certain parts of information
Semantic Web Services
Web Services

• Web Services provide data and services to other

• Thee applications access Web Services via standard Web
Formats (HTTP, HTML, XML, and SOAP), with no need
to know how the Web Service itself is implemented.
• You can imagine a web service like a remote procedure
call (RPC) which it returns a message in an XML format.
Web Services

• loosely coupled, reusable components

• encapsulate discrete functionality
• distributed
• programmatically accessible over standard internet
• add new level of functionality on top of the current web
The Promise of Web Services
Deficiencies of WS Technology
• Current technologies allow usage of Web Services
• but:
• only syntactical information descriptions
• syntactic support for discovery, composition and execution
=> Web Service usability, usage, and integration needs to be inspected manually
• no semantically marked up content / services
• no support for the Semantic Web

=> current Web Service Technology Stack failed to

realize the promise of Web Services
Semantic Web Services
Semantic Web Technology
• allow machine supported data interpretation
• ontologies as data model

Web Service Technology

automated discovery, selection, composition,
and web-based execution of services

=> Semantic Web Services as integrated solution for realizing the vision of the next
generation of the Web
Semantic Web Services
• define exhaustive description frameworks for describing Web
Services and related aspects (Web Service Description
• support ontologies as underlying data model to allow machine
supported data interpretation (Semantic Web aspect)
• define semantically driven technologies for automation of the
Web Service usage process (Web Service aspect)

• Automated Tools

• Enhanced Web Services

• Effective Searching

• Quality issues

• Trust Issues
• The semantic web in naming every concept simply by a URI, lets everyone
express new concepts that they invent with minimal effort.

• Its unifying modeling language will enable these concepts to be progressively

linked into a universal web.

• The structure of semantic web will open up the knowledge and workings of
human kind to meaningful analysis by software agents, providing a new class
of tools by which we can live, work and learn together.
Thank You