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NC, CNC and DNC

systems
CNC Technology and Programming
MEC326T
Lecture 2

• Dr. Senthilkumaran
• Manufacturingportal.in
Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics

4000 B.C. Stone, clay Bending, forging Riveting Stone, emery, Earthenware Wood, natural
molds (Au, Ag, Cu) corundum, fiber
garnet, flint
2500 BC Lost wax Shearing, sheet Soldering, Drilling, sawing Glass beads,
(bronze) forming brazing potter's wheel
1000 BC Hot forging Forge welding, Iron saws Glass pressing,
(iron), wire- gluing glazing
drawing (?)
0. A.D. Coining (brass), Turning (wood), Glass blowing
forging (steel) filing

1000 Wire drawing Stoneware,


porcelain
(China)
1400 Sand casting, Water hammer Sandpaper Majolica, crystal
cast iron glass
1600 Permanent mold Tinplate can, Wheel lathe
rolling (Pb) (wood)
1800 Flasks Deep drawing, Boring, turning, Plate glass;
rolling, (steel), screw cutting porcelain
extrusion (Pb) (Germany)

1850 Centrifugal, Steam hammer, Shaping, milling, Window glass Vulcanization


molding tinplate rolling copying lathe from slit cylinder
machine
Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics
1875 Rail rolling, Turret lathe, Celluloid, rubber
continuous universal mill, extrusion,
rolling vitrified wheel molding

1900 Tube rolling, Oxyacetylene, Geared lathe, Automatic bottle


extrusion (Cu) arc welding, automatic screw making
electrical machine,
resistance hobbing, high-
welding speed steel,
synthetic SiC,
Al2O3
1920 Die casting W wire (from Coated Bakelite, PVC
powder) electrode casting, cold
molding,
injection
molding
1940 Lost wax for Extrusion (steel) Submerged arc Acrylics, PMMA,
engineering P.E., nylon,
parts, resin- synthetic rubber,
bonded sand transfer
molding,
foaming
1950 Ceramic mold, Cold extrusion TIG welding, EDM ABS, silicones,
modular iron, (steel) MIG welding, fluorocarbons,
semi-conductors electroslag polyurethane

1960 Plasma arc Manufactured Float-glass Acetals,


diamond polycarbonate,
polypropylene
Evolution of Machine Tools
Machining with Manual Application of Power
Evolution of Machine Tools
Machining with Manual Application of Power
Evolution of Machine Tools
Machining with Manual Application of Power
Evolution of Machine Tools
Evolution of Machine Tools
Machining with Manual Application of Power
Evolution of Machine Tools
First Milestone: Application of Power
Evolution of Machine Tools
Maudsley’s Screw Cutting Machine is second
milestone in machine tools in which spindle and tool
motion were synchronized
Evolution of Machine Tools
Copying arrangement for Machining is third milestone in
automation in which hard templates/masters were used
to machine components.
Evolution of Machine Tools
Copying Lathe
Evolution of Machine Tools
Evolution of Machine Tools
In-process gauging is a fourth milestone
Evolution of Machine Tools
• CNC or Computer Numerical Control is a term
derived from NC or Numerical Control.

• NC refers to Control of a process or automatic


operation of a machine by using symbolic codes
consisting of characters and numbers.

• NC was introduced in late 40’s to control machine


tools such as Drilling and Milling machines. One of
the first applications of NC machine tool was in
production of helicopter rotor blades and ship
propellers.
Evolution of Machine Tools
John T Parsons introduced NC
machine tools for which he was
awarded a patent titled motor
Controlled apparatus for
positioning machine tool control
(patent No: 2820187)

• Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is a term


derived from NC or Numerical Control in 70s
when micro-processor and computer based NC
controlled machines were built.
Evolution of CNC Technology Tools

First Application
Initiative of US Air Force
Opposition
NC to CNC
APT
CAM
Feature Based Machining
STEP NC
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Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
• The EIA definition of computer numerical control (CNC).
• “A numerical control system wherein a dedicated, stored program computer is
used to perform some or all of the basic numerical control functions in
accordance with control programs stored in the read-write memory of the
computer.”

The CNC uses a


dedicated
microprocessor
to perform the
MCU functions.

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• CNC supports programming features not available in conventional NC
systems:
• Subroutine macros which can be stored in memory and called by the part-
program to execute frequently-used cutting sequence.
• Inch-metric conversions, sophisticated interpolation functions (such as cubic
interpolation) can be easily accomplished in CNC.
• Absolute or incremental positioning (the coordinate systems used in locating the
tool relative to the work piece) as well as PTP or contouring mode can be
selected.

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• The part-program can be edited (correction or optimization of tool path, speeds,
and feeds) at the machine site during tape tryout.
• Tool and fixture offsets can be computed and stored.
• Tool path can be verified using graphic display.
• Diagnostics are available to assist maintenance and repair.

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Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
• The EIA definition of DNC.
• “A system connecting a set of numerically controlled machines to a common memory for part
program or machine program storage with provision for on-demand distribution of data to
machines.”
• In DNC, several NC machines are directly controlled by a computer, eliminating substantial
hardware from the individual controller of each machine tool. The part-program is downloaded
to the machines directly (thus omitting the tape reader) from the computer memory.

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Distributed Numerical Control
Central
Computer NC Pgms

Computer Network

BTR BTR BTR


Machine Machine Machine
Control Unit Control Unit Control Unit

Transformatio
n
Process