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 INTRODUCTION.

 HISTORY OF AI.
 SUSPICIONS ABOUT AI.
 FOUNDATIONS OF AI.
 TURING TEST.
 VARIOUS APPROACHES.
 APPLICATIONS.
 RISKS OF AI.
 BIBILIOGRAPHY.
 Term coined by John McCarthy.
 Started with Alan Turing – wanted to build machine
that was intelligent as human being.
 Turing suggested - nervous system could be
modeled as a computational system.
 AI is defined as- “A simulation of human intelligence
on a machine so as to make the machine efficient to
identify and use the right piece of knowledge at a
given step of solving a problem”.
 Classified by Prof Peter Jackson – University of
Edinburg .
1) Classical Period .
-Early 1950s.
-Research works include game playing and theorem proving.
-The concept of state space approach -useful tool for solving
intelligent problems – originated during this period.
-Origination of Turing’s test.
2) Romantic Period.
-Mid 1960s to mid 1970s.
 -Machines which understand natural languages- using
semantic nets – founded by Quillion.
 People are intrinsically different from machines-
they never have the capabilities or the personhood
of humans.
 Presence of something non computational- beyond
the understanding of current physics.
 We are products of rational thought.
 How the capabilities can be incorporated to
machines?
 Speculations on where our work on AI will lead to?
Philosophy.

Neural Artificial
Psychology.
science. Intelligence

Physics.
 Developed by Alan M Turing in 1950.
 Imitation game.
 Human judge would hold a three way conversation
with a computer and human.
 If the judge cannot distinguish between the responses
of a computer and human-machine will pass the test.
 Led to widespread misinterpretation of AI.
 Poorly designed experiment and hopelessly culture
bound. Turing test does not admit of weaker different
or even stronger forms of intelligent than those of
deemed human.
 ACTING HUMANLY.
-Turing test is very relevant.
 COGNITIVE MODELLING APPROACH-THINKING HUMANLY
-Through introspection.
-Psychological experiments.
 THINK RATIONALLY-THE LAWS OF THOUGHT APPROACH.
-Right thinking correct conclusion using logics.
 ACTING RATIONALLY- THE RATIONAL AGENT APPROACH.
-Reason logically to the conclusion and then to act on the
conclusion.
 Knowledge Representation – development of expert systems.
 Natural Language Processing.
 Computer Vision – ability of a computer to understand objects.
 Robotics –robots which can interact with the complex everyday
world .
 Software Agents – performing autonomous tasks in cyberspace.
 Autonomous Control Systems – ex: ALVINN computer system
that can steer a car.
 Game Playing – IBMs “Deep Blue”- defeated World Chess
Champion, Garry Kasparov.
• People might lose their due to automation.
 People might lose their sense of being unique.
 The use of AI systems might result in a loss of
accountability.
 People might lose some of their private rights.
 The success AI might mean the end of the human race.
 Russel Stuart and Norvig Peter, ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE: MODERN APPROACH , New Delhi :
Dorling Kindersley Pvt.Ltd., 2006 Print.
 Nilsson j Nils , ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE A NEW
SYNTHESIS , New Delhi: Replika Press Pvt.Ltd,2004
Print.
 Henderson Harry, THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, New
Delhi : Viva Books Pvt.Ltd. 2007 Print.