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 INTRODUCTION

 INVERSE KINEMATICS
 RHINO XR3 ROBOT
 INVERSE KINEMATICS ALGORITHM
 MATLAB PROGRAM
 SPECIFICATIONS
 RESULTS
 CONCLUSION
 Kinematics → Motion of (rigid) links without considering force and torques.
→ Study of “geometry” of motion.

 Two problems in kinematics of serial robots


 Direct Kinematics Problem: Given the constant D-H link parameters and the
joint variable, ai−1, αi−1, di , and θi , i = 1,2,…n, find the position and orientation of
the last link in a fixed or reference coordinate system.

 Most basic problem in serial manipulator kinematics.


 Required to be solved for computer visualization of motion and in off-line
programming systems.
 Used in advanced control schemes.

 Inverse Kinematics Problem: Given the constant D-H link parameters and the
position and orientation of the end-effector ({n}) with respect to the fixed frame
{0}, find the joint variables.

 Harder than the direct kinematics problem.


 Leads to the notion of workspace of a robot.
 Required for computer visualization of motion and used in advanced control
schemes.
INVERSE KINEMATICS
 Inverse kinematics consists of calculating the joint variables if the position
and orientation of end effectors is known.

 For 3D motion, 6 task space variables — 3 position + 3 orientation in


 For planar motion, 3 task space variables— 2 position+ 1 orientation in

 Following cases possible:


1. n = 6 for 3D motion or n = 3 for planar motion → Same number of
equations as unknowns.
2. n < 6 for 3D motion or n < 3 for planar motion → Number of task space
variables larger than number of equations and hence there must be (6−n)
((3−n) for planar) relationships involving the task space variables.
3. n > 6 for 3D motion or n > 3 for planar motion → More unknowns than
equations and hence infinite number of solutions
RHINO XR3 ROBOT
RHINO XR3 ROBOT
 It has a jointed-spherical geometry with five degrees of freedom in the arm and
wrist.

 The five axes of motion include rotation at the wrist, shoulder, and elbow for
positioning the hand; then, flex and rotation motion in the wrist for orientation of
the gripper.

 The motion is transferred from the axis drive motors to the joint by chain, and
lever linkages. The rate of rotation of the axis drive motor is reduced by gears in
the motor and the linkage between the motor and the joint.

 The axis drive motors are dc servo devices with optical encoders attached to
determine joint angles and arm position.

 Each drive motors is electrically connected to the robot controller by a 10


conductor ribbon cable which supplies power to the motor and carries position
data from the encoder.

 A sixth servo drive motor and associated linkage to operate the gripper are
mounted in the wrist assembly. The gripper servo drive does not cause motion in
any arm axes.
……RHINO XR3 ROBOT
……RHINO XR3 ROBOT
INVERSE KINEMATICS ALGORITHM
The arm matrix of Rhino XR3 robot can be written as--

FOUR QUADRANT ARCTAN FUNCTION


INVERSE KINEMATICS ALGORITHM
 The tool-configuration vector for 5-axis articulated robot

 For articulated robot, q= θ


 Base joint, q1
w2/w1 =tan q1 → q1 =atan2(w2,w1)

 Global tool pitch joint, q234


q234=atan2{-(c1w4+s1w5), -w6}
…..INVERSE KINEMATICS ALGORITHM
 b1= c1w1+s1w2-a4c234+d5s234
b2=d1-a4s234-d5c234-w3
||b||2=b12+b22

 Elbow angle,q3
q3= arc cos((||b||2 –a22-a32)/2a2a3)

 Shoulder angle, q2
q2=atan2[{(a2+a3c3)b2-a3s3b1}, {(a2+a3c3)b1+a3s3}]

 Tool pitch angle,q4


q4=q234-q2-q3

 Tool roll joint angle, q5


q5=atan2(s1R11-c1R21 , s1R12-c1R22) [if rotation matrix is known]
=πln(w42+w52+w62)1/2
MATLAB PROGRAM
SPECIFICATIONS

d1=10.25 inch
a2=9 inch
a3=9 inch
a4=0.375 inch
d5=6.25 inch
RESULTS
 For different robots different algorithms have to be
formed for solving the inverse kinematics problem.

 Once an algorithm has been designed for a particular


robot, they can be easily programmed to get desirable
results or can be programmed to do a specific task.
REFERENCES
 ROBOTICS:ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS, NPTEL 2010

 THE REFERENCE ABOUT RHINO XR ROBOT SYSTEM, ECE565


ROBOTICS CLASS,VERSION 2.0

 FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTICS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL, R.J.


SCHILLING