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Culture Project

Jewish

By: Alesha Fulton, Cheyenne Kirkwood, Macy


Goodman, Olivia Gerke, and Shayna Hamilton
Family
• Sexual segregation is a major aspect of their religion.
Women may cover their heads with a scarf and are not
allowed to shake the hands of men.
• Men aren’t allowed to touch their wives when they are
bleeding vaginally. This includes during child birth. Most
men aren’t even allowed to be there when thier wives are
in labor
• Expected to care for the sick
• Men are to be circumcised on the 8th day after birth
• 13 year old boys have a Bar Mitzvah, while 12-13 year old
girls have a Bat Mitzvah. Prior to the celebration boys
and girls both are required to study after school at a
synagogue
Family Continued
• Mainly speak English; some may speak Yiddish or ladino
(form of Spanish)
• Health care is seen as the most important service you
can provide
• There is a stress on saving an existing life over a
potential life. This means that if there are complications
with the mother and baby during pregnancy they expect
the mother to be saved even if it means losing the baby
• Today men and women are viewed as equals with high
respect for women although the rate of abuse in Jewish
families correlates with that of the rest of the population
Community
Youngstown Area Jewish Federation:
• There are volunteering activities available in the Youngstown
area related to the Jewish community
• Their mission statement is to “sustain and enrich the quality of
life for the Jewish people regionally, in Israel and worldwide.”
• The Youngstown Area Jewish Federation is an organization that
includes: Levy Gardens Assisted Living, Jewish Family Services,
Heritage Manor, The Jewish Home for the Aged, Jewish
Community Center, Jewish Community Relations Council
• Heritage manor is a not-for-profit facility specifically for the
elderly. They offer kosher meals, a meditation room, day
services, rehabilitation and private dining rooms. They are
sponsored by the Youngstown Area Jewish Community but are
not limited to Judaism. Levy Gardens an elderly living facility is
on the same property as Heritage manor
Nutrition
• Kashrut (Kosher): is the body of Jewish law dealing with what foods can and
cannot be eaten and how food should be prepared

• Rules:
▫ Animals that have cloven hooves and chews cud is acceptable, if not it is forbidden
▫ Anything in water that has fins and scales is acceptable, but lobsters, oysters, shrimp,
clams, and crabs are forbidden
▫ Rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and insects are forbidden
▫ Certain animals may not be eaten: flesh, organs, eggs, and milk of the forbidden
animals
▫ Animals that may be eaten: birds and mammals must be killed in accordance
with Jewish law
▫ All blood must be drained from meat and poultry or broiled out of it before eaten
▫ Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be inspected for bugs
▫ Meat cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains can be
eaten with either meat or dairy
▫ Utensils that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and
vice versa.
Spirituality
• They follow a solar and lunar calendar. This means that
it accounts for changes with the sun and moon.
• It is primarily a lunar calendar, accounting for the
different cycles of the moon. Each cycle lasts about 29.5
days. This equals 354 days a year
• The solar calendar has 365 and 1/4th days a year
• An extra month is added to the Hebrew calendar 7 times
every 19 years. This keeps the Jewish holidays in the
correct month
• Their days are counted from sunset to sunset. Ancient
rabbis concluded that since night is mentioned before
morning in Genesis that night comes first.
Spirituality Continued
• All Jewish holidays begin at sunset on the noted date and last until dusk on
the next day.

Holidays:
• Rosh HaShanah OCT 2-4 2016
• Yom Kippur OCT 11-12 2016
• Sukkot OCT 16-23 2016
• Simchat Torah OCT 23-24 2016
• Hanukkah DEC 24 2016 - JAN 1 2017
• Tu BiSh'vat FEB 10-11 2017
• Purim MAR 11–12 2017
• Passover APR 10–17 2017
• Yom HaShoah APR 23–24 2017
• Yom HaZikaron & Yom HaAtzmaut APR 30 - MAY 2 2017
• Lag BaOmer MAY 13-14 2017
• Shavuot MAY 30-31 2017
• Tishah B'Av JUL 31 - AUG 1 2017
• Selichot SEPT 16 2017
Holidays Continued
Hanukkah (DEC 24 2016 - JAN 1 2017)
• Celebrating the victory of the Maccabees over the armies of Syria.
• This is a time of liberation and rededication.
• It is characterized by the lighting of a menorah. A menorah typically has 9 candles. 8
for each day of Hanukkah and one in the center used to light the other candles. Each
candle is to be blessed during the holiday. It is forbidden to use the candles for other
purposes.
• For this holiday they eat fried foods like latkes which are like potato pancakes as well
as jelly doughnuts
• They sing a song after each candle lighting which in English is translated to “Rock of
Ages”
• They play a gambling game referred to as dreidel meaning spinning top in German.
The spinning top has 4 sides with a different symbol on each side.
▫ nun – take nothing; gimmel – take everything; hey – take half; shin – put one in.
▫ To start each player has to put so many of the gambling items into the center
▫ It is common to gamble with coins, buttons or gelt (chocolate money)
Holidays Continued
Passover (APR 10–17 2017)
• This is a spring festival that includes a home service
known as a seder. This means order and involves a meal.
• It involves the forbidding leaven. Yeast is a leaven.
During this holiday they make a bread called matzah that
doesn’t include any leavens.
• It is a holiday of freedom and family
• Friends and family gather to read a book called the
haggadah. Inside the book are prayers, rituals, readings
and songs. The book also has an order of all the steps for
the Passover holiday.
Spirituality Continued
Jewish Bible and Beliefs
• They follow the Torah or the laws of god. This includes the first five books
of the bible. This is also known as the Old Testament.
• They believe in a unique and eternal God that has no physical evidence of
existence. He is all seeing and all powerful. He rewards the good and
punishes the bad.
• The Torah is focused on relationships between god and mankind,
individuals, god and the Jewish nation and finally the Jewish nation and
Israel.
• They believe in the messiah but Jesus was not him. It is believed that the
messiah will:
▫ Build the third temple
▫ Move all Jews to Israel
▫ Will end all hatred, oppression and suffering
▫ Uniting the whole world through knowledge of the God of Israel
• Jesus didn’t accomplish any of these tasks, therefore he isn’t believed to be
the messiah.
Spirituality Continued
• Life:
▫ In Judaism, life is valued above almost all else
▫ Since life is so valued, Jews are not permitted to
anything that may hasten death, not even to prevent
suffering
▫ Euthanasia, suicide, and assisted suicide are
forbidden
▫ Jewish Law also permits “pulling the plug” or refusing
extraordinary means
▫ Taking a life is like destroying an entire world, and
saving a life is like saving an entire world
Death
• The Jewish culture believes like life, death has
meaning
• Death is not considered a tragedy, considered a
natural process
• Have a firm believe in the afterlife
• Jewish culture states those who lived a worthy
life will be rewarded
• Mourning practices are very extensive
Death Ritual
• Purpose: to show respect for the dead, and to comfort the living, who will
miss the deceased.
• After death:
▫ eyes are closed
▫ body is laid on the floor and covered
▫ candles are lit next to the body
▫ body is never left alone until burial ( to show respect)
▫ body is thoroughly cleaned and wrapped in a simple, plain linen shroud
▫ body is then wrapped in a tallit with its tzitzit rendered invalid
▫ the body is not embalmed, and no organs or fluids may be removed
▫ if you were in the presence of the body you have to wash your hands
before entering a home
▫ body is never displayed at funerals, open casket ceremonies are
forbidden
Death Mourning
• When a close relative dies, its traditional to express grief by tearing one’s clothing
▫ over the heart if it’s a deceased parent
▫ over the right side of the chest for other relatives
▫ Death mourning is done in periods

1st Period: Aninut


• the family should be left alone
• after burial, a close relative prepares the first meal for the mourners.
▫ meal traditionally consists of eggs and bread

2nd Period: Shiva


• Observed by parents, children, spouses, and siblings of the deceased, usually all
together in the deceased's home.
• Shiva begins the day of burial and continues unitl the morning of the seventh day
after burial
• Mourners sit on low stools, do not wear leather shoes, do not shave or cut their hair,
do not wear cosmetics
• Mourners wear clothes that they tore, mirrors in the house are covered
Death Mourning Continued
3rd Period: Shloshim
• observed only for a parent
• this period last for 12 months after burial
• during the time, mourners avoid parties, celebrations, theater and concerts
• for 11 months, starting at the time of burial, the son of the deceased recites
the mourner’s Kaddish every day

After Shloshim:
• The family of the deceased is not permitted to continue formal mourning
• Every year, on the anniversary of the death, family members observe the deceased's
Yahreit (anniversary)
• On Yahreit, sons recite Kaddish an aliyah ( bless the Torah reading), in synagogue if
possible
• All mourners light candle in honor of the decedent that burns for 24 hours
Deceased's Tombstone
• Jewish law requires that a tombstone be prepared, so the
deceased will not be forgotten
• The tombstone is veiled until the end of the 12 month of
mourning period
▫ Custom is that the dead will not be forgotten
▫ This custom is observed, there is generally a formal
unveiling
References
• Faigin, D. P. (2016, November 27). S.C.J. FAQ: Section 17.3. Countering
Missionaries: Countering the Question: Why Don't Jews Believe in Jesus as
the Messiah? Retrieved November 27, 2016, from
http://www.shamash.org/lists/scj-faq/HTML/faq/17-03.html
• Galanti, G., PhD, & Woods, M. S., MD. (2012). Cultural Sensitivity (R. A.
Porche Jr., Ed.). Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources.
• Rich, R. T. (1996-2011). Life, Death, and Mourning. Judaism 101. Retrieved
November 26, 2016 http://www.jewfaq.org/death.htm
• Rich, R. T. (1995-2011). Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws. Judaism 101.
Retrieved November 26, 2016 http://www.jewfaq.org/kashrut.htm
• Union for Reform Judaism. (2016). Jewish Holidays; Jewish Life; Practice;
Learning; Social Group; Israel. Retrieved November 23, 2016, from
http://www.reformjudaism.org/jewish-holidays
• What Do Jews Believe? (2001, November 21). Retrieved November 27,
2016, from http://www.mechon-mamre.org/jewfaq/beliefs.htm
• Youngstown Jewish Federation - Youngstown Jewish Federation. (n.d.).
Retrieved November 23, 2016, from http://www.jewishyoungstown.org//