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BEHAVIOURISM

THEORY
JOHN WATSON
INTRODUCTION
Strengths and
weaknesses
What is How it works
behaviorism? in language
classroom?

Who is What to Will it work in


John Watson look our
(1878-1958 )? for? classroom?
John B. Watson
John Broadus Watson
January 9, 1878
American psychologist
Conducted research on
animal behavior, child
rearing and advertising.
Jan. 1878- Sept. 1958
Proponent of behaviorism
“Give me a dozen healthy
infants, well-formed, and my own
specified world to bring them up in
and I guarantee to take any
one at random and train him
to become any type of specialist I
might select- doctor, lawyer, artist,
merchant-chief and, yes, even
beggar-man and thief, regardless of
his talents, penchants, tendencies,
abilities, vocations, and race of his
ancestors.”
What is Behaviorism?
Idea that behavior is acquired through
conditioning.

Language production was the result of stimuli


that produced the formation of a habit.

A learner’s response to stimuli can be reinforced


using positive or negative feedback.
Types of
conditioning
Classical Operant
conditioning conditioning

Involves pairing a naturally A method that occurs using


occurring stimulus with a negative and positive
response. reinforcement (or rewards and
punishments).
Then a previous neutral
stimulus is paired with the
naturally occurring stimulus.

The neutral stimulus begins to


evoke the same response
without the natural occurring
stimulus.
Clear predictions that
can be scientifically
tested and support
with evidence.

Behaviors can still


change even or
Real life Strengths after
applications reinforcement is
given.

Easier to conduct
and collect data
and research.
Does not account
for other ways of
learning.

Behaviorism only
Behaviors can provides a partial
still change even account of human
or after Weaknesses behaviour (emotions,
reinforcement is expectations, higher-
given. level motivation).

Humanism rejects the


scientific method of
using experiments to
measure and control
variables.
Behaviorism and Teachers
Behaviorism is seen when teachers use the following
methods:
◦ Testing specific skills
◦ More individual work than group learning
◦ Using positive and negative reinforcement
Behaviorism and Students

1. Students learn through


experiences and practices.
2. Learning is also modified with
positive and negative
reinforcements
3. Students begin to give predicted
responses to a stimulus.
Behaviorism in Language
Teaching Classroom
Ways in which we could use behaviorism
theory in classroom:
1) Have objectives and expectations clearly stated.
2) Give weekly quizzes/tests.
3) Use positive/negative reinforcement to
encourage and reward my students for good
behavior and to punish bad behavior.
Example of Teaching

The emphasis was on drilling in problematic areas and


correct errors.

E.g: Pronunciation and sentence structure during


instruction.
Teacher: I want a hamburger. (holding a picture of a hamburger)

Students: I want a hamburger.

Teacher: hot dog. (holding a picture of a hot dog)

Students: hot dog.

Teacher: No! (emphasis) I want a hot dog.

Students: I want a hot dog.

Teacher: Good job!


Example of Teaching

Reward being correct, but ENCOURAGE when


incorrect:

1. Almost every teacher of young learners rewards


students with words of praise.

2. On the other hand, encouraging students when


wrong is far more beneficial to the psyche of the
student.
Smile while
correcting
- as to say, “it’s
no big deal”

Student
Use a
upset by
nonjudgmental Strategies for mistake
voice. encouragement
- get eye level
- be soft and and encourage.
understanding

Reassure
- “it’s ok, you’re doing
well.”
Own opinion
REFERENCES
McLeod, S. (2007). Retrieved from:
http://www.tesolclass.com/applying-sla-theories/behaviorism/
Kimble, (1925). Retrieved from:
https://principlesoflearning.wordpress.com/dissertation/chapter-3-
literature-review-2/the-behavioral-perspective/behaviorism-john-b-
watson-1913/
Anonymous. (n.d.). Retrieved from:
https://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html