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History of Indian railways
Block diagrams
Details of microcontroller
C Programming processing in
 Inthe rapidly flourishing country like ours,
accidents in rail road railings are increasing
day by day.

 Thetrain accidents cause severe damage to life

and property

 Thisproject deals with one of the efficient

method to avoid train accidents.
The Railway Age dawned in India on 16th. April 1853,
when the first train ran from Bombay to Thana, a
distance of 21 miles(33.81 Km.) For some years before
that the idea of building railways in India had taken
concrete shape with the Court of Directors of the East
India Company in London. In 1845, along with Sir
Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, Hon. Jaganath
Shunkerseth(known as Nana Shankarsheth ) formed
the Indian Railway Association.
Eventually, the association was incorporated into
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and Jeejeebhoy and
Shankarsheth became the only two Indians among the
ten directors of the GIP railways.
As a director, Shankarsheth participated in the very
first train journey in India between Bombay and Thane
on the 16th of April, 1853
Human error.
Track problems or adverse weather
Derailment in curves and bends.
Mis-signaling due to fog or mist.
Collision between trains
Oral communication through telephonic and
telegraphic conversations.
IR sensors are also used to identify the cracks
in the railway.
LASER Proximity Detector
Use of satellites for communication.
No combined solution for collision
avoidance,derailment and railway gate
•Automatic railway gate
•Micro controller(AT89S52)
•I.R. Sensor
•Servo motors
•Traffic Lights
Set of digital logic circuits integrated on
a single chip.
Micro controller is for entire control.
Examples:8051,89c51,PIC,motorola etc
This report employs the 8-bit
microcontroller from ATMEL (AT89S52). The
microcontroller in our security system is
used for sending signals to the auto dialer
and buzzer alarm. A number is already
stored in the EEPROM of the
microcontroller. When a logic low signal
appears at the pin 1 of the microcontroller,
the number stored in the memory is sent to
the auto dialer.
• Compatible
• 8 Kbytes of In-SystemReprogrammable
Flash Memory
• Three-Level Program MemoryLock
• 256 x 8-Bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Programmable SerialChannel
• Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
In order to overcome these dangerous accident problems we,
in this project came up with a solution for the same. Using
simple electronic components we have tried to automate the
control of railway gates. This report is a standalone
automatic unmanned railway gate control system using
AT89S52 microcontroller.
The main aim of this project is atomizing the unmanned
railway gate. i.e., the gate is closed automatically whenever
the train comes and gate is opened after the train leaves the
railway – road crossing. The arrival of train in either direction
can be identified using this project. Use of embedded
technology makes this closed loop feedback control system
efficient and reliable. Micro controller (AT89S52) allows
dynamic and faster control. AT89S52 micro controller is the
heart of the circuit as it controls all the functions.
The system comprises of two IR Transmitter-Receiver pairs.
One IR TX – Rx pair is located at one end of the railway gate.
The second pair is located at another end of the gate.
Whenever any train is arriving on the track, the IR signal
gets disturbed due to the interruption of the train. Thus
the micro controller identifies the arriving of train.
Before closing the gate the microcontroller gives siren to
alert the people who are on the track. After 30 sec, the
controller will close the gate by rotating the DC motor.
For the opening of the gate, the micro controller should
know whether the train has left the crossing or not. The
second IR pair is used for this purpose. The second IR
pair identifies the train since the IR signal gets disturbed
when it comes in between TX and RX. The
microcontroller will wait till the last compartment and
when it left the IR pair, the receiver again gets IR signal.
Hence the microcontroller knows that the train left the
gate. Till this time the gate is closed.
Now, after the train left the crossing, the microcontroller
will open the gate by rotating the DC motor.
In this we have used "if-else" function to
set the output for each input but my MCU
(AT89S52) does not produce any output for
the left and right "if-else" loop. However, it
produced outputs for forward and backward
*/L=signal for road user
W=weight sensor
SG=signals for train
M=motor for
int L,B,W,SG,M;
if(((R1 = = 0)||(R2==0))&&((v1==1)||(v2==1)))
L=0 ; //RED
M=1; //close
SG=1; / / g reen
L=1; //green
M=0; //Gate open
The idea of automating the process of railway gate
operation in level crossings has been undertaken. As the
system is completely automated, it avoids manual errors
and thus provides ultimate safety to road users. By this
mechanism presence of a gatekeeper is not necessary
and automatic operation of the gate through the motor
action is achieved. Microcontroller 89S52 performs the
complete operation i.e., sensing ,gate closing and
opening operation is done by software coding written for
the controller. The mechanism works on a simple
principle and there is not much of complexity needed in
the circuit.