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Nursing

Leadership and
Management
LET HIM THAT
WOULD MOVE
THE WORLD,

FIRST MOVE
HIMSESF.

- Socrates
CONTENTS
 Leadership and Management Defined
and Distinguished

 Leadership and Management Theory

 Management Functions

 Roles of the Nurse Manager

 Creating a Caring Environment

 Leadership and Management Skills


and Behaviors
Leadership Defined
and Distinguished
 Leadership Defined

 Management Defined

 Leadership and Management


concepts

 Power and Authority

 Formal and Informal Leadership


Leadership Defined
Leadership combines:
 intrinsic personality traits,
 learned leadership skills,
 characteristics of the
situation.
Leader -
 guides people and groups
to accomplish common
goals,
 influences the beliefs,
opinions, or behaviors of a
person, group, or groups
of people.
Nurse leader
 is able to inspire others on the
health care team to make
patient education an important
aspect of all care activities.
Leadership qualities:
 unique personality
characteristics,
 exceptional clinical expertise,
 relationships with others in the
organization.
Management Defined
Management -
 coordinates people, time, and
supplies to achieve desired
outcomes,
 involves problem-solving and
decision-making processes.
Managers responsibility:
 maintain control of the day-
to-day operations,
 achieve established goals and
objectives.
Manager

plans
organizes
what is to be
done who is to do
it
how it is to be done
Nurse manager
will have:
an appointed management position
within the organization with
responsibilities to perform
administrative tasks:
 planning staffing
requirements,
 performing employee
performance appraisals,
 controlling use of supplies and
time,
 meeting budget and
productivity goals.
Leadership
and Management

 areintertwined
concepts,

 are different,

 difficult to discuss
one without the other .
A good manager also should be
a good leader
Leadership,
management
skills:
- complementary;
- can be learned
and developed:
• through
experience,
• improving skills
in one area will
enhance abilities
in the other.
Power and Authority
Nurse manager has
 authority - formal right to direct
others granted by the
organization,
 power - ability to motivate
people to get things done with or
without the formal right granted
by the organization,
 ability to influence others to
accomplish goals.
Formal and
Informal Leadership
Formal leadership practices by:
 nurse manager,
 supervisor,

 charge nurse,

 coordinator and gives the


authority to act by the
organization.
Informal Leadership

is exercised by the person who

 has no official or appointed


authority to act,
 is able to persuade,
 is able to influence others in the
work group,
 strategies the nurse manager can
use to work with informal
leaders.
Leadership and
Management Theory

 Leadership Trait Theory


 Interactional Leadership
Theories
 Transformational
Leadership
 Management Theory
 Organizational Theory
Leadership,
management, and
organizational theories
provide the
building blocks
on which to
build effective
nursing
management
practices and
skills.
Contemporary theories of
leadership
depends on several variables,
including (Marquis and Huston,
2000):
 1. Organizational culture.
 2. Values of the leader.
 3. Values of the followers.
 4. Influence of the
leader/manager.
 5. Complexities of the situation.
 6. Work to be accomplished.
 7. Environment.
Transformational leaders
 Identify and clearly communicate
vision and direction.
 Empower the work group to
accomplish goals and achieve the
vision.
 Impart meaning and challenge to
work.
 Are admired and emulated.
 Provide mentoring to individual staff
members based on need.
Transactional leaders
 Focus on day-to-day operations
and are comfortable with the
status quo (the existing state of
affairs).
 Reward staff for desired work
("I'll do x in exchange for you
doing y").
 Monitor work performance and
correct as needed; or
 Wait until problems occur and
then deal with the problem.
Management Theory
 Behavioral theories explain
aspects of management and
leadership based on behaviors of
managers/leaders and followers.
Organizational Theory
 provides a framework for
understanding complex
organizations,
 helps to understand the
management process.
Management
Functions
 Planning

 Organizing

 Staffing

 Directing

 Controlling
 Planning includes defining goals and
objectives, developing policies and
procedures; determining resource
allocation; and developing
evaluation methods.
 Organizing includes identifying the
management structure to accomplish
work, determining communication
processes, and coordinating people,
time and work.
 Staffing includes those activities
required to have qualified people
accomplish work such as recruiting,
hiring, training, scheduling and
ongoing staff development.
 Directing encourages employees
to accomplish goals and
objectives and involves
communicating, delegating,
motivating, and managing
conflict.
 Controlling analyzes results to
evaluate accomplishments and
includes evaluating employee
performance, analyzing
financial activities, and
monitoring quality of care.
Roles of the Nurse
Manager
 Customer Service
Provider
 Team Builder

 Resource Manager

 Decision Maker and

 Problem Solver

 Change Agent
Customer Service Provider
 Providing service or care to
customers (patient or clients).
 Nurse must keep customer
service first and foremost as the
motivator of all plans and
activities.
 Without customers, the
organization will go out of
business.
Team Builder

 A team is a
group of
people
organized to
accomplish
the
necessary
work of an
organization.
 Teams have become
important in the changing
health care environment.

 Teams bring together a


range of people with
different knowledge, skills,
and experiences to meet
customer.
Resource Manager
 Resources include the
personnel, time, and supplies
needed to accomplish the
goals of the organization.
 Nurse manager has the
responsibility - effectively
manage resources in
providing safe, effective
patient care in an economic
manner.
Three Types of Budgets
1. Personnel
Allocates funds for salaries, overtime,
benefits, staff development and training,
and employee turnover costs

2. Operating budget
Allocates funds for daily expenses such as
utilities, repairs, maintenance, and
patient care supplies
3. Capital budget
Allocates funds for construction projects
and/or long-life equipment such as
cardiac monitors, defibrillators, and
computer hardware; capital budget items
are generally more expensive than
operating supplies.
Decision Maker and
Problem Solver
 components of effective
leadership and management
in clinical patient care.
 Problem solving is focused
on solving an immediate
problem and
 decision maker includes
a decision-making step.
Nursing process =
problem-solving
process includes :
 assessment,
 analysis and diagnosis,
 planning,
 implementation,
 evaluation;
 has proven to be effective to
manage the complex decisions.
 ASSESSMENT
 Gather information about the
situation
 Identify the problem; separate the
symptoms
 Identify people and groups
involved
 Identify cultural and environmental
factors
 Encourage input from involved
parties
ANALYSIS AND
DIAGNOSIS
 Analyze results of
information gathered
 Identify, clarify, and
prioritize the actual problem
(s)
 Determine if intervention is
appropriate
PLANNING
 Identify as many solutions as
possible
 Elicit participation from people or
groups affected
 Review options and consider
safety, efficiency, costs, quality,
and legal issues
 Consider positive and negative
outcomes
 Remain open-minded and flexible
when considering options
IMPLEMENTING
 Communicate plans to
everyone affected
 Be sure plans, goals, and
objectives are clearly
identified
 Maintain open, two-way
communication with staff
 Support and encourage
compliance among all staff
EVALUATION
 Identify evaluation criteria in the
planning
 Identify who is responsible for
evaluation, what will be
measured, and when it will take
place
 Maintain open communication
with all involved
 Was the decision successful?
 What might have made it better?
The nurse - change agent

 is responsible for guiding


people
 through the change process
and needs
 to develop an understanding
about the nature of change
and effective change
strategies.
 1. Change should be
implemented only for good
reason.
 2. Change should always be
planned and implemented
gradually.
 3. Change should never be
unexpected or abrupt.
 4. All people who may be
affected by the change should
be involved in planning for
the change.
The most important
responsibility for the nurse
in any leadership or
management
 role is to create an environment of
caring - caring for staff members as
well as for patients and families.
Staff members who believe that
their manager sincerely cares
about them and the work they do
are able to pass that feeling of
caring on to their patients and
other customers.
Caring for the staff members can
be demonstrated through
(McNeese-Smith, 1997):

 Offering sincere positive


recognition for both individuals
and teams.
 Praising and giving thanks for a
job well done.
 Spending time with staff
members to reinforce positive
work behaviors.
 Meeting the staff member's
personal needs whenever
possible, such as
accommodating scheduling
needs for family events and
being flexible in times of
illness.
 Providing guidance and
support for professional and
personal growth.
 Maintaining a positive,
confident attitude and a
pleasant work environment.
LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
SKILLS AND BEHAVIORS

Hersey and Blanchard (1988) have


identified that effective leadership and
management requires skills in three
major areas:
 Technical skills—such as
clinical expertise and nursing
knowledge.
 Human skills—the ability and
judgment to work with people
in an effective leadership
 Conceptual skills—the
ability to understand
the complexities of the
overall organization

 and where one's own


area of management fits
into the overall
organization.