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Employee Training and


Introduction: Training for
Competitive Advantage

After reading this chapter, you should be
able to:
1. Discuss the forces influencing the
workplace and learning, and explain how
training can help companies deal with these
2. Discuss various aspects of the instructional
system design model.
3. Describe the amount and types of training
occurring in various companies.

Objectives (continued)

4. Discuss the key roles and competencies

required for training professionals.
5. Identify appropriate resources (e.g.,
journals, websites) for learning about
training research and practice.

What is training?

 Training refers to a planned effort by a

company to facilitate employees’ learning of
job-related competencies.
 The goal of training is for employees to
 master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors
emphasized in training programs, and
 apply them to their day-to-day activities

Training Design Process
Conducting Needs Employees’ Creating a
Assessment Readiness for Learning
Training Environment

Developing an Ensuring Transfer

Evaluation Plan of Training

Monitor and
Select Training
Evaluate the

Assumptions of Training Design
 Training design is effective only if it helps
employees reach instructional or training
goals and objectives.
 Measurable learning objectives should be
identified before training.
 Evaluation plays an important part in
planning and choosing a training method,
monitoring the training program, and
suggesting changes to the training design
Forces Influencing the Workplace
and Training
 Globalization
 Need for leadership
 Increased value placed on knowledge
 Attracting and winning talent
 Quality emphasis
 Changing demographics and diversity of the
work force
 New technology
 High-performance model of work systems
Core Values of Total Quality
 Methods and processes are designed to meet
the needs of internal and external customers.
 Every employee in the company receives
training in quality.
 Quality is designed into a product or service
so that errors are prevented from occurring,
rather than being detected and corrected.

Core Values of TQM (continued)

 The company promotes cooperation with

vendors, suppliers, and customers to improve
quality and hold down costs.
 Managers measure progress with feedback
based on data.

Skills needed to manage a diverse
work- force include:
 Communicating effectively with employees
from a wide variety of backgrounds.
 Coaching and developing employees of
different ages, educational backgrounds,
ethnicities, physical abilities, and races.
 Providing performance feedback that is free
of values and stereotypes based on gender,
ethnicity, or physical handicap.
 Creating a work environment that allows
employees of all backgrounds to be
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How Managing Cultural Diversity Can
Provide Competitive Advantage
1. Cost argument As organizations become more diverse, the cost of
a poor job in integrating workers will increase.
Those who handle this well will thus create cost
advantages over those who don’t.
2. Resource- Companies develop reputations on favorability as
acquisition prospective employers for women and minorities.
argument Those with the best reputations for managing
diversity will be the most attractive employers for
women and minority groups.
An important edge in a tight labor market.
3. Marketing argument The insight and cultural sensitivity that members
with roots in other countries bring to the
marketing effort should improve these efforts in
important ways.
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How Managing Cultural Diversity Can
Provide Competitive Advantage (continued)
4. Creativity argument Diversity of perspectives and less emphasis on
conformity to norms of the past should improve
the level of creativity.

5. Problem-solving Heterogeneity in decisions and problem-solving

argument groups potentially produces better decisions
through a wider range of perspectives and more
through critical analysis of issues.

6. System flexibility An implication of the multicultural model for

argument managing diversity is that the system will become
less determinant, less standardized, and therefore
more fluid.
The increased fluidity should create greater
flexibility to react to environmental changes (i.e.,
reactions should be faster and cost less).
Use of new technology and work design needs
to be supported by specific HRM practices:

 Employees choose or select new employees

or team members.
 Employees receive formal performance
feedback and are involved in the
performance improvement process.
 Ongoing training is emphasized and
 Rewards and compensation are linked to
company performance.
Use of new technology and work design needs
to be supported by specific HRM practices:
 Equipment and work processes
encourage maximum flexibility and
interaction between employees.
 Employees participate in planning
changes in equipment, layout, and work
 Employees understand how their jobs
contribute to the finished product or
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Roles and Competencies of Trainers

Roles Competencies
Analysis/Assessment Role Industry understanding; computer competence; data
analysis skill; research skill
Development Role Understanding of adult learning; skills in feedback;
writing, electronic systems, and preparing objectives

Strategic Role Career development theory; business understanding;

delegation skills; training and development theory;
computer competence
Instructor/Facilitator Role Adult learning principles; skills related to coaching,
feedback, electronic systems, and group processes

Administrator Role Computer competence; skills in selecting and

identifying facilities; cost-benefit analysis; project
management; records management