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Unit 3: Plate Tectonics Vocab

 Convergent boundary
 Inner core
 Diverging boundary
 Mantle
 Subduction
 Outer core
 Fault
 Crust
 Craton
 Protoplanet
 Lithosphere
 Protoplanet
 Plate tectonics
hypothesis
 Spreading centers
 Asthenosphere
 Mohorivic
 Collision boundary
Discontinuity “Moho”
Earth’s origin and structure.
Origin The origin of the solar system
Hypothesis
has to consider the following
six facts.
1. All planets move around the
sun in the same direction.
2. The paths, or obits of the
planets around the sun are
elliptical.
3. Most of the orbits are in nearly
the same flat surface. (Plane)
Origin 4. The sun turns on its axis in
Hypothesis almost the same plane as the
planets and in the same
direction that the planets
revolve.
5. Most of the planets rotate in the
same direction as the sun.
6. Seven of the nine planets have
moons. Most of the moons
revolve around the planets in
the same direction that the
planets revolve around the sun.
Protoplanet hypothesis
The protoplanet hypothesis suggests
Protoplanet that 5 billion years ago a great ball of
Hypothesis gas and dust rotated slowly in space. It
ranged at least 10 billion KM in
diameter.
As time passed it shrank under the pull
of its own gravity. Most of the cloud’s
material gathered around its own
center.
Its shrinking made it rotate faster. The
compression of its material made its
interior so hot that a powerful reaction,
hydrogen fusion, began and the core of
the cloud blazed into a newborn sun.
Origin of the oceans
Origin of the When the earth was created it had
oceans
neither atmosphere nor oceans.
There were three sources of heat in
the protoplanet Earth. (compression,
radioactive materials, and meteor
showers)
The heat built up and volcanic
eruptions began. The eruptions
produced volcanic gases. The steam
in these gases condensed upon
reaching the surface to form the
earth’s oceans.
Origin of the The atmosphere that surrounds
atmosphere Earth today includes about 78% free
nitrogen and 21% free oxygen.
Free means gases are not combined
with any other elements.
The remaining other percent is made
up of argon, carbon dioxide, and
helium.

Free oxygen came from the


breakup of water molecules by
sunlight into the upper
atmosphere. Green plants added
more oxygen to the atmosphere by
photosynthesis.
Structure of the Solid Earth
Structure of the
Solid Earth Crust:
Mantle:
10Km 2900KM
Thick at thick
ocean
basin,

? 65Km at
mountain
top

Inner
Outer Core:
Core: 1200K
2250K m thick
m thick

What Causes the layers??? A. Density Differences,


B. Temperature differences. C. Materials
1. Crust: solid rock, includes dry and wet land.

2. Mantle: hot & solid rock


a. Lithosphere: Upper, rigid part of the mantle
1.) Moho: boundary between the crust &
mantle

b. Asthenosphere: upper most portion of mantle,


semi liquid layer
3. Core: made up of mostly metals, very hot!
a. outer core: liquid metal
b. inner core: solid, dense metal
Seismic waves
• Waves travel at
different speeds
through liquids & solids.
(Also different types of
minerals)
• http://science.discovery
.com/tv-shows/greatest-
discoveries/videos/100-
greatest-discoveries-
the-core-of-the-
earth.htm
Meteorite

• Show similar
metals to what
we believe the
core is made
of!
#14: Journey to the Center of
the Earth Textbook Time
Use the red textbook to answer the following
questions:
Pg. 130: “Analyzing Data” 1-4
Pg. 131 #’s 1 & 2
Pg. 135 #’s 1-3