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EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS

EARTH MODEL
NORMAL-INCIDENCE REFLECTION AND
TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS

r2V  r1V1
DENSITY r1 REFLECTION
R 2

r2V  r1V1
COEFFICIENT

VELOCITY V 1 2

DENSITY r 2
2r1V1
VELOCITY V2
TRANSMISSION
T
r2V2  r1V1
COEFFICIENT

WHERE: r1 = DENSITY OF LAYER 1


V1 = VELOCITY OF LAYER 1
r 2 = DENSITY OF LAYER 2
V2 = VELOCITY OF LAYER 2
SEISMIC
ACQUISITION
GEOPHONE STRUCTURE
GEOPHONE TYPES & FREQUENCY
SOURCE TRUCKS
3D-SEISMIC COVERAGE
CDP & FOLD STACK
MARINE SEISMIC
CABLE LAYOUT
MULTIPLE RAYPATH
FACTORS AFFECTING AMPLITUDE
ATTENUATION TECHNIQES
SEISMIC
DATA
PROCESSING
PROCESSING FLOWCHART
OBJECTIVE OF PROCESSING

REAL EARTH SEISMIC MODEL


PULSE TRACE EARTH
EARTH PROPERTIES
PROCESSING
EFFECT OF STACKING ON NOISE
SIGNAL PLUS RANDOM AT SIX-DETECTOR
ARRAY
NOISE

SIGNAL SIGNAL + NOISE

SIGNAL + NOISE
SUMMED OUTPUT
EACH RECEIVER
SEISMIC-WELL TIES

PURPOSE: TO COMBINE TWO DATA SETS FOR A MORE


COMPLETE INTERPERATION

SEISMIC DATA WELL DATA


• TWO WAY TIME • LINEAR DEPTH
• SEISMIC VELOCITY • VELOCITY
• SEISMIC IMPEDENCE • DENSITY
• SEISMIC SEQUENCES • GEOLOGIC AGE
• SEISMIC FACIES • LITHOLOGY
• STRUCTURE • FAULT ORIENTATION
ACOUSTIC STRUCTURE OF EARTH
LAYERED
EARTH SONIC DENSITY RC
CONVOLUTION
DETAILED SYNTHETIC SEISMOGRAM
DETAILED SYNTHETIC SEISMOGRAM
POST-STACK PROCESSING

• RESIDUAL STATICS

•DISPLAY ENHANCEMENT
• MIGRATION
•ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS
•INVERSION
•TIME-DEPTH CONVERSION
SUMMARY OF SEISMIC PROCESSING
• DATA ARE GATHERED AND CMP-ORDERED GATHERS ARE FORMED

•VELOCITY ANALYSIS IS PERFORMED ON SELECTED GATHERS

•THE GATHERS ARE MOVEOUT CORRECTED, STACKED, AND PLOTTED

•STACKING MAY BE FOLLOWED BY ADDITIONAL PROCESSING


VELOCITY ANALYSIS
NORMAL MOVEOUT (NMO)

= TX - T0
TX
T0

IMAGE POINT
WHERE
T0 = ZERO OFFSET TIME
NMO-ISOTROPIC LAYER
X
A C

B
2Z
T 
V
AB  BC DC
TX  :
V V
D
WHERE DC 2  (27) 2  X 2
IMAGE
POINT DC 2 27 2 X 2
 2  2
V2 V V
THEREFORE
X2
T2
X  T2

V2
MULTI-LAYER CASE
X
V1
T0,1 TX,1
Z
TX,2 ASSUMED RAYPATH FOR VNMO
CALCULATION
T0,2 ACTUAL RAYPATH

X2
FOR LAYER 1: T  T 
2
X
2

V2
X2
FOR LAYER 2: TX , 2  T , 2 
2 2
2
VNMO ,2

VNMO = NORMAL MOVEMEOUT VELOCITY

X2
VNMO [ 2 ]1/ 2

TX  T2
HOW IS VNMO DETERMINED?

FOR EACH TRACE T AND X VALUES ARE DETERMINED


VELOCITY ANALYSIS
T2 - X2 PLOT

TX2 t2

TO2,N X2

OFFSET2

HYPERPOLA PLOTS AS A STRAIGHT LINE ON T2 - X2 GRAPH

Y=b+mX
WHERE Y  TX2, N
b  TO2, N
1 t 2
m 
2
VNMO X 2
 2 1/ 2
VNMO  (1 / M ) 1/ 2
( )
t 2
VMNO CORRECTION

KNOWING THE VNMO, T AND OFFSET, THE


TIME CORRECTION NECESSARY TO SHIFT
EACH TRACE CAN BE CALCULATED
INTERVAL VELOCITY DETERMINATION
FROM SEISMIC

FROM VELOCITY ANALYSIS, WE KNOW


VNMO1,T0,1
VNMO2, T0,2
SUBTITUTING THESE VALUES INTO THE DIX EQUATION

VNMO22 * T0, 2  VNMO12 * T0,1


VID  [ ]1/ 2
T0, 2  T0,1
MIGRATION EFFECTS

• FLAT HORIZONS REMAIN UNCHANGED IF THERE ARE NO


VELOCITY ANOMALIES ABOVE

• DIPPING HORIZONS BECOME STEEPER, SHALOWER, AND


MOVE LATERALLY UPDIP

• SYNCLINES BECOME BROADER, WITH ANY BOW TIES


ELIMINATED

• ANTICLINES BECOME NARRWER

• DIFRACTIONS COLLPSE TO POINTS


RAY PATH MIGRATION
x
1
X SINΘ  tV 
2 
t t
TAN Φ 
X
2
TAN   SIN 
V
REFLECTOR
REFLECTION

WHERE

 = TRUE DIP OF REFLECTOR

= APPERENT DIP OF REFLECTOR

V= VELOCITY
WHY MIGRATE?
IF BEDS ARE DIPPING, APPERENT POSITION OF
EVENTS ON A STACKED SECTION DIFFERS FROM
THEIR TRUE POSITION

DEPTH MODEL ARRIVAL TIMES

7 KFT/SEC
TIME
DEPTH
9 KFT/SEC

11 KFT/SEC
ASSUMPTION UNDERLYING
MIGRATION

• ALL EVENTS ARE PRIMARIES-

NO NOISE, NO MULTIPLES, NO SHEAR WAVES

• ALL EVENTS COME FROM THE PLANE VERTICALLY

BENEATH THE SEISMIC LINE-

NO SIDEWIPE

• VELOCITY ARE KNOWN EVERY WHERE


MIGRATION MOVES DIPPING HORIZONS
FOCUSING EFFECT OF A SHARP SYNCLINE
DEFOCUSING EFFECT OF AN ANTICLINE
FOCUSING EFFECT OF A SYNCLINE
3-D MIGRATION

• ELIMINATES ASSUMPTION OF 2--D MIGRATION THAT ALL


DATA COMES FROM WITHIN PLANE OF SECTION

• REQUIRES 3-D DATA COLLECTION TO INSURE CLOSELY


SPACED TRACES IN BOTH X, Y DIRECTIONS

• MOVES ENERGY IN BOTH INLINE AND CROSSLINE


DIRECTIONS

• INLINES AND CROSSLINES TIE AFTER 3-D MIGRATION

• MAP MIGRATION IS AN ALTERNAIVE FOR COARSE GRID OF


2-D LINES
TIME VS. DEPTH SECTIONS
CDP GATHER AFTER DEMULTIPLEXING
CDP GATHER AFTER AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
CDP GATHER AFTER DECONVOLUTION
VELOCITY ANALYSIS
CDP GATHER AFTER NMO CORRECTION
CDP GATHER AFTER MUTING STRETCHED ZONES
CDP STACKED SECTION
CDP STACKED SECTION WITH TVF FILTER