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Activated Sludge Processes

MK Unit Proses Teknik Lingkungan


Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan FTSP ITS
Suspended Growth
• Organisms are suspended in the treatment
basin fluid.
• This fluid is commonly called the “mixed
liquor”.

Suspended Growth:
• Activated sludge
• Oxidation ditch/pond
• Aerated lagoon, stabilization pond
Activated Sludge

• Process in which a mixture of wastewater &


microorganisms is agitated & aerated

• Leads to oxidation of dissolved organics

• After oxidation, sludge is separated from


wastewater

• Detention time = approximately 6 - 8 hours


• Designed based on loading
(the amount of organic
matter added relative to
Activated Sludge the microorganisms
available)
• Commonly called the
food-to-microorganisms
ratio, F/M
• F measured as BOD. M
measured as volatile
suspended solids
concentration
• F/M is the pounds of
BOD/day per pound of
MLSS in the aeration tank
Activated sludge process
Activated sludge flocs

Note filamentous bacteria

Note Vorticella and


other protozoa
Activated sludge model
Primary aeration tank
Oxygenated systems

Cryogenic air separation facility, Hyperion, Playa del Rey, CA)


Settling tanks

Secondary settling tank, Hyperion, Playa del Rey, CA)


Nitrogen removal
 Nitrification (Nitrosomonas and
Nitrobacter)

NH3 + O2  NO2-  NO3-

 Denitrification
NO3- + organics  CO2 + N2

 Process adaptations
Air

Anoxic Aerobic
Phosphate removal
 BPR plants

 Discarding phosphate anaerobically

 Luxury aerobic uptake of P in aerobic stage

 Process adaptations for N and P removal

Air
Wastewater
Anaerobi
Anoxic Aerobic
c
Excess biomass disposal

 Production
 Separation
 Further biological treatment – (an)aerobic
 Dewatering
 Drying – solar or gas heated
 Disposal/ beneficial use – soil amender/fertilizer
or fuel

The cost of biomass disposal amount to about half the cost of wastewater treatment.
Aeration, if used, almost up to half of the rest of the cost. If no aeration, the capital cost
, including the cost of land, could be very high.
Typical steps in modern wastewater treatment
Type of Activated Sludge

• Activated sludge without cell recycle

• Activated sludge with cell recycle


Design of Activated Sludge
• Influent organic compounds provide the food for the
microorganisms and is called substrate (S)

• The substrate is used by the microorganisms for growth, to


produce energy and new cell material.

• The rate of new cell production as a result of the use of


substrate may be written mathematically as:
dX dS
Y
dt dt
• Y is called the yield and is the mass of cells produced per
mass of substrate used (g SS/g BOD)
Monod Model for Substrate Utilization
S
  m
Ks  S

dX SX
 X   m
dt Ks  S

dX dS
Y
dt dt

dS dX 1  m SX
so :  . 
dt dt Y Y ( K s  S )
ACTIVATED SLUDGE WITHOUT CELL
RECYCLE
Mean Cell Residence Time, θc
Mean cell residence time (MCRT, θc) is the mass of cells in
the system divided by the mass of cells wasted per day.
Consider the system:
VX V
c  
QX Q
For no recycle systems, θc = θh
At steady state, the amount of
solids wasted per day must equal
the amount produced per day:
VX VX X
c   
dX dS dS
V Y V Y
dt dt dt
Mass Balance on Microorganisms:
Accumulation = input – output – process

dX dS
V  QX o  QX  Y V  k d XV
dt dt
In steady state condition  (dX/dt) V = 0, and QX0 = 0
 m SX
0  QX  V  k d XV dS

 m SX
Ks  S dt Y( Ks  S )
dibagi VX
Q m S
0   kd
V Ks  S
1 S K s ( 1  k d c)
 m  kd S
c Ks  S  c ( m  kd )  1
Ks
Jika kd diabaikan  S
1
 kd  
 m c  1
c
Example
A CSTR without cell recycle receives an influent with 600
mg/L BOD at a rate of 3 m3/day. The BOD in the effluent must
be 10 mg/L. The kinetic constants are: Ks = 500 mg/L and μm
= 4 days-1. How large should the reactor be?
Ks
S
 m c  1
K s  S 500  10
Solve for θc: c    12.75 days
S m 10 * 4

V
c 
Q
V = θc Q = 12.75 (3) = 38.25 m3
Given the conditions in the previous example, What
would the percent reduction in substrate be if the
reactor volume was 24 m3?
V 24
c    8 days
Q 3

Ks 500
S   16.1 mg/L
 m c  1 4 * 8  1

Reduction = [(600 – 16.1)/600] x 100 = 97.3%


ACTIVATED SLUDGE WITH CELL
RECYCLE
• Aerobic suspended systems
– activated sludge
Now consider a CSTR with cell recycle:
VX
c 
Qw X r  ( Q  Qw ) X e
Since Xe = 0:

VX
c 
Qw X r

Removal of substrate often expressed in terms of substrate


removal velocity, q:
mass of substrate removed per time
q
mass of microorgan isms under aeration
 So  S 
 V
 h  S S
q  o
VX h X
Mass balance on microorganisms:
dX
V  QX o  Qw X r  ( Q  Qw ) X e  XV  k d XV
dt

X0 = Xe = 0
dX
kondisi stady state : V 0
dt
X r Qw 1
  kd   kd
XV c
The substrate removal velocity, q, can also be expressed as: q = μ/Y
S
since   m
Ks  S

By substitution: q  1  m S
Y Ks  S

But q is also equal to: q  S o  S


X h
If we equate these two equations for q and solve for S0 – S:
S S So  S
q o X
X h θh q
Hydraulic retention time:

Since q = μ / Y  c Y ( So  S )
h 
1 X 1  k d c
c 
qY
1 Reactor volume:
   kd
c  c Y ( So  S )
V Q
X 1  k d c
Solids Separation
• The success of the activated sludge process depends on the efficiency
of the secondary clarifier, which depends on the settling
characteristics of the sludge (biosolids).
• Some system conditions result in sludge that is very difficult to
settle. In this case the return activated sludge becomes thin (low
MLSS) and the concentration of organisms in the aeration tank goes
down. This produces a higher F/M ratio (same food input, but fewer
organisms) and a reduced BOD removal efficiency.
• One condition that commonly causes this problem is called bulking
sludge. Bulking sludge occurs when a type of bacteria called
filamentous bacteria grow in large numbers in the system. This
produces a very billowy floc structure with poor settling
characteristics.
Sludge Volume Index, SVI
(volume of sludge after 30 min. settling, ml) x 1000
SVI =
mg/L suspended solids

A mixed liquor has 4000 mg/L suspended solids. After 30


minutes of settling in a 1 L cylinder, the sludge occupied 400
ml.
SVI = (400 x 1000)/ 4000 = 100

Good settling if SVI < 100, if SVI > 200 …. problems


Problem
An activated sludge system operates at a flow rate of 400 m 3/day and has an influent
BOD of 300 mg/L. The kinetic constants for the system have been determined to be:
Ks = 200 mg/L, Y = 0.5 kg SS/kg BOD, μm = 2 day-1. The mixed liquor suspended
solids concentration will be 4000 mg/L. IF the system must produce an effluent with
30 mg/L BOD, determine:
A. The volume of the aeration tank
B. The sludge age (MCRT)
C. The quantity of sludge wasted per day
The hydraulic retention time may be found from the following equation:

 m SX h Y ( S o  S )( K s  S )
So  S  h 
Y (K s  S )  m SX

θh = [0.5(300 – 30)(200 + 30)] / [2 (30) (4000)] = 0.129 days = 3.1 hr


V = θh Q = 400 (0.129) = 51.6 m3
θc = 1/ (qY)

q = (S0 – S) / (X θh ) = (300– 30) / [(4000)(0.129)]


= 0.523 (kg BOD removed/day) / (kg SS in the reactor)

θc = 1/ (qY) = 1 / (0.523 x 0.5) = 3.8 days

Also θc = (X V) / (Xr Qw)

Xr Qw = (X V) / θc = [(4000)(51.6)( 103 L/m3)( 1/106 kg/mg)] / 3.8


= 54.3 kg/day
Using the same data what MLSS is necessary to produce an effluent
concentration of 15 mg BOD/L?
q = (μm S) /[Y(Ks + S)]

= [2(15)] / [0.5(200 + 15)] = 0.28 day-1

X = (S0 – S) / ( θh q )
= (300 – 15) / [0.129(0.28)] = 7890 mg/L

θc = 1 / (q Y) = 1 / [0.28(0.5)] = 7.2 days


Ringkasan
Persamaan-persamaan yang digunakan
dalam proses activated sludge:
1. TANPA RECYCLE:
Y ( So  S ) kd 1 1 Y ( So  S )
 ( So  S )
X h   X
X h Y Y h 1  k d c
1
  kd
h K s ( 1  k d c )
 h  Ks 1
  S   S S
S  1  k d h  m m  c ( m  kd )  1
  m
Ks  S

QSo V 1 m S
F  c  h    kd
M V .X Q c K s  S
• Mencari kd dan Y dari percobaan lab.:
( So  S ) k d 1 1
  slope 
1
X h Y Y h (So  S ) Y
X h

TANPA kd
intercept 
RECYCLE Y
1
h
• Mencari Ks dan μm dari percobaan lab.:
 h  K 1 1
  S  s  S Slope 
 1  k d h  m m  h 
  S
m

 1  k 
d h 

Ks
intercept 
m
S
2. DENGAN RECYCLE:
Qw X  ( Q  Qw ) X e
  kd
VX
( So  S ) kd 1 1
 

Y
(So  S )  c Y ( So  S ) X h Y Y c
X h h  c Y ( So  S )
X 1  k d c X
1  h 1  k d c
  kd
c
1 m S
  kd  c  K 1
S c Ks  S   S  s  S
  m
Ks  S  1  k d c  m m
K s ( 1  k d c )
S
QSo V c ( m  kd )  1
F  h 
M V .X Q
• Mencari ke danY dari percobaan lab.:
( So  S ) kd 1 1
  slope 
1
X h Y Y c (So  S ) Y
X h

RECYCLE kd
intercept 
Y
1
c
• Mencari Ks dan μm dari percobaan lab.:
 c  K 1 1
  S  s  S Slope 
 1  k d c  m m  c 
  S
m

 1  k 
d c 

Ks
intercept 
m
S
Parameters Recycle Non-Recycle
Sludge age &
Equations of hydraulic residence V V
c  h  c  h 
ACTIVATED time Q Q
SLUDGE Hydraulic residence
PROCESS time  c Y ( So  S ) Y ( So  S ) 1
h  h  
X 1  k d c kd X kd
Microorganism in
system  c Y ( So  S ) Y ( So  S )
X X
 h 1  k d c 1  k d c
Substrate in system
K s ( 1  k d c ) K s ( 1  k d c )
S S
c ( m  kd )  1 c ( m  kd )  1
Determining kd & Y
( So  S ) kd 1 1 ( So  S ) kd 1 1
   
X h Y Y c X h Y Y h
For recycle system, Determining Ks & m
 c  K 1  h  K 1
if k d is ignored :   S  s  S   S  s  S
 1  k 
d c   m  m  1  k d h  m m
Y ( S o  S )( K s  S ) F-M ratio
h  QSo QSo
 m SX F
M
 F
M

V .X V .X
Recycle Ratio

R=Qr/Qo
Mass Balance at Junction
• Microorganism

Qo X o  Qr X r  ( Qo  Qr ) X
Xo = 0
Qo  Qr X r Qo X r Qr X
  1  R
Qr X Qr X Qo X r  X

• Substrate

Qo S o  Qr S r  ( Qo  Qr )S e

Qo S o  Qr S r
Se 
Qo  Qr
• Sludge Production

Px  YSR  k dVX SR = (So - Se).Qo

• Oxygen Requirement
Y’ = oxygen coeff, mass
OR  Y' S R  k' d VX  On oxygen/mass substrate
utilized = 1 – 1,42 Y
kd‘ = endogenous respiration
coeff, mass oxygen/
mass cell-day = 1,42 kd
On = oxygen for nitrification
= mass N x 3.84
Soal-soal
• Suatu percobaan proses lumpur aktif dalam skala
laboratorium yang dioperasikan secara Batch, dengan
waktu aerasi 24 Jam dan diketahui nilai MLVSS = 70
% dari nilai MLSS. Hitunglah nilai Y dan kd dengan
acuan masa MLVSS. Data hasil percobaan :
No. Xo (MLSS) Xt (MLSS) So (BOD5) St (BOD5)
Reaktor (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
1 450 790 725 95
2 860 1160 725 89
3 1650 1960 725 77
4 3670 3875 725 70
Suatu kawasan pemukiman dengan jumlah penduduk 8000 jiwa dilayani dengan
sistem IPAL terpusat. Kapasitas air buangan sebesar 225 L/orang.hari dan rata-
rata BOD sebesar 425 mg/L. Konsentrasi NH3-N sebesar 25 mg/L dan teroksidasi
sebesar 95 %. Susunan sel C5H7NO2. Removal BOD pada pengendap I diperkirakan
sebesar 32 %. Jika diinginkan reaktor utama adalah proses Lumpur Aktif, dengan
nilai :
Y = 0,81 kg VSS/ kg BOD; ke = 0,07/hari ; Y’ = 0,73 kg O2/kg BOD;
ke’ = 0,16 kg O2/kg VSS; X = 2500 mg MLSS/L ; Xr = 10.000 mg/L
MLVSS/MLSS = 0,7, umur lumpur = 10 hari , waktu tinggal hidrolik = 8 jam.
Hitunglah :
• Konsentrasi BOD effluen.
• Produksi lumpur

• Kebutuhan Oksigen.
• Debit resirkulasi yang diperlukan
Air limbah industri rumah tangga diolah dengan Proses lumpur aktif.
Karakteristik air buangan dan Parameter perencanaan ditentukan sbb:
• Q = 6.000 m3/hari.

• BOD5 influen (So) = 320 mg/ L

• BOD5 effluen (Se) = 20 mg/ L


• Umur Lumpur = 7 hari,
• Konsentrasi mikroorganisme dalam reaktor (X) = 2500 mg VSS/L
• SVI = 85
• Y = 0,6 kg VSS/kg BOD ke = 0,04
• MLVSS = 0,75 MLSS.
1. Hitung kebutuhan Oksigen untuk proses lumpur aktif tersebut
2. Hitung nilai ratio resirkulasi (R = Qr/Qo)
3. Hitung volume tangki aerasi
4. Hitung ratio F/M.