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INTRODUCTION TO

BIOSYNTHESIS
Dr. Md. Rageeb Md. Usman
(M. Pharm., Ph.D., FAPP, FICPHS, FSRHCP, FRSH, FSPER)
Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacognosy

Smt. Sharadchandrika Suresh Patil


College of Pharmacy,
Chopda, Maharashtra, India
The combined processes whereby the major constituents of
the bacterial cell are synthesized is called biosynthesis.

The production of ATP and NAD(P)H from light and an


electron donor. These are required in autotrphic CO2 fixation
(plants and bacteria) which is the ultimate sustainer of all
food chains. Do not forget the nitrogen, sulphur, phosphate,
iron and trace elements.

Carbon dioxide is the primary substrate supporting life and is


incorporated into cells by different mechanisms.
Metabolism
 Term used to describe all the chemical
reactions occurring in an organism
 Break down chemistry is called
catabolism
 Buildup (synthesis) chemistry is called
anabolism
 Most chemistry is assisted by proteins
called enzymes
Objectives

 Recognize the difference between a macro


and a micronutrient.
 Recognize the role of antioxidants
 Be able to describe the role of enzymes
and how enzymes work
 Be able to explain the difference between
Active and passive transport
 Be able to explain simple diffusion,
osmosis, facilitated diffusion, Pumps, and
exo/endocytosis
Biogenesis of Natural Product:
Living Plant may be consider as a biosynthetic
laboratory not only Primary metabolites but also
secondary metabolites.

A)Primary Metabolites
e.g. Sugars, Amino acid, Fatty acid etc.

B) Secondary Metabolites
e.g. Glycoside, Alkaloids, Volatile Oil etc.
A higher plant is a solar powered biochemical
factory which manufacture both primary and
secondary metabolites from air, water, minerals and
sunlight.
Primary metabolites are substances that widely
distributed in nature occurring in one from to
another which are needed for the growth and
development because of their basic cell metabolism.
Secondary metabolites are biosynthetically
derived from primary metabolites.
superpathway of leucine, valine, and
isoleucine biosynthesis