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ECW 567 – Water & Wastwater Engineering

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At the end of this lesson, students should be able

Apply engineering principles in the analysis of

treatment systems for water supply .
(CO1) (PO3, PO7)

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Engineered Water Systems

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Sources of Drinking Water

• Groundwater
– shallow wells
– deep wells
• Surface water
– rivers
– lakes
– Reservoirs
• Rainwater
– Open area
– Building
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Groundwater, Surface Water & Rainwater

Groundwater Surface water Rainwater

Constant composition Variable composition Variable composition
High mineral content Low mineral content Low mineral content
Low turbidity High turbidity Low turbidity
Low colour Coloured Colourless
Low or no D.O. D.O. Present D.O. present
High hardness Low hardness Low hardness
High Fe, Mn Taste and odour Taste and colour

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Water Quality
The water provided to consumers must satisfy certain water
quality standards. The following are usually used to describe
drinking water quality;

i. Physical: Relate to the quality of water for domestic use and

usually associated with the appearance of water, its colour or
turbidity, temperature, and in particular taste and odour.
ii. Chemical: Chemical characteristics, evidenced by their
observed reactions, such as comparative performance of hard
and soft waters in laundering
iii.Microbiological: Microbiological agents are important to public
health and may modify physical and chemical characteristics of
iv. Radiological: Some areas are in contact with radioactive
substances. Public health concern

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Physical characteristics

 Turbidity – presence of suspended material such as clay, silt,

finely divided organic material, plankton etc. Measured in TU
(Turbidity Unit) or NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit). Water
should be less than 5 TU.
 Colour – dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation
and certain inorganic matter. Does not affect health, but
aesthetically objectionable.
 Taste and odour – caused by foreign matter such as organic
compounds, inorganic salts, dissolved gases. Objectionable.
 Temperature – water for drinking should be cool and do not
have high temperature fluctuations. Most individuals prefer a
temperature between 10 – 15º C

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Chemical characteristics
 Chloride – should contain less than 100 mg/l
 Fluoride – beneficial for health as it reduces dental caries. Acceptable
levels between 0.8 and 1.3 mg/L
 Iron – presence can cause brownish colour to laundered goods and
affect taste of beverages
 Lead – exposure to body can damage health. Poisonous.
 Manganese – imparts a brownish colour
 Sodium – can affect heart, kidney, or circulatory ailments.
 Sulfate – caused by leaching of natural deposits of magnesium sulfate
or sodium sulfate. Undesirable due to laxative affects.
 Zinc – found in natural waters. Imparts undesirable taste to drinking
 Arsenic – naturally found, also in pesticides. Lung and urinary bladder
 Toxic Inorganic Substances – nitrates (NO3), cyanides (CN) and heavy
metals causes health concerns.
 Toxic Organic Substances – numerous organic compounds, including
pesticides, insecticides and solvents whose effects are acute and
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Microbiological Characteristics

Water for drinking and cooking must be free from disease-producing

organisms (pathogens) These include viruses, bacteria, protozoa and
helminths (worms). The most widely used test estimates the number of
microorganisms of the coliform group, Escheria coli (E. Coli) and
Aerobacter aerogenes.

The Total Coliform test covers both forms. Currently most agencies prefer
the E. coli test as a better indicator of biological contamination

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Radiological Characteristics

The development of and use of atomic energy as a power source, the

mining of radioactive materials and naturally occurring radioactive
materials made it necessary to limit concentrations for intake into the

Water with high radioactivity is not normal and is confined to areas where
nuclear industries are situated

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Water Quality Standards

The following tables give the water quality guidelines for both raw and
drinking water in Malaysia.

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Ministry Of Health – Raw Water Quality Guideline

1 Total Coliform MPN 5000
2 E.Coli - -
3 Turbidity NTU 1000
4 Colour TCU 300
5 pH unit 5.5 - 9.0
6 Residue Chlorine mg/L -
7 Total Chlorine mg/L -

8 Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 1500
9 Biological Oxygen Demand mg/L 6
10 Chemical Oxygen Demand mg/L 10
11 Total Organic Carbon mg/L -
12 Chloride mg/L 250
13 Anionic Detergent MBAS mg/L 1
14 Ammonia mg/L 1.5
15 Nitrate mg/L 10
16 Iron mg/L 1
17 Fluoride mg/L 1.5
18 Hardness mg/L 500
19 Aluminium mg/L -
20 Manganese mg/L 0.2
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21 Mercury mg/L 0.001
22 Cadmium mg/L 0.003
23 Arsenic mg/L 0.01
24 Cyanide mg/L 0.07
25 Lead mg/L 0.05
26 Chromium mg/L 0.05
27 Copper mg/L 1
28 Zinc mg/L 3
29 Sodium mg/L 200
30 Sulphate mg/L 250

31 Chloroform -
32 Bromoform -
33 Dibromochloromethane -
34 Bromodichloromethane -
35 Selenium mg/L 0.01
36 Silver mg/L 0.05
37 Magnesium mg/L 150
38 Boron mg/L -
39 Nickel mg/L -
40 Mineral Oil mg/L 0.3
41 Phenol mg/L 0.002

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42 Aldrin/Dieldrin mg/L 0.00003

43 DDT mg/L 0.002
44 Heptachlor & Heptachlor Epoxide mg/L 0.00003
45 Methoxychlor mg/L 0.02
46 Lindane (BHC) mg/L 0.002
47 Chlordane mg/L 0.0002
48 Hexachlorobenzene mg/L 0.001

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Ministry Of Health - Treated Water Quality Guideline

1 Total Coliform MPN Absent
2 E.Coli - Absent
3 Turbidity NTU 5
4 Colour TCU 15
5 pH unit 6.5 - 9.0
6 Residue Chlorine mg/L 0.2 - 5.0
7 Total Chlorine mg/L 1

8 Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 1000
9 Biological Oxygen Demand mg/L -
10 Chemical Oxygen Demand mg/L -
11 Total Organic Carbon mg/L -
12 Chloride mg/L 250
13 Anionic Detergent MBAS mg/L -
14 Ammonia mg/L 1.5
15 Nitrate mg/L 10
16 Iron mg/L 0.3
17 Fluoride mg/L 0.4 - 0.6
18 Hardness mg/L 500
19 Aluminium mg/L 0.2
20 Manganese mg/L 0.1

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21 Mercury mg/L 0.001

22 Cadmium mg/L 0.003
23 Arsenic mg/L 0.01
24 Cyanide mg/L 0.07
25 Lead mg/L 0.01
26 Chromium mg/L 0.05
27 Copper mg/L 1
28 Zinc mg/L 3
29 Sodium mg/L 200
30 Sulphate mg/L 250

31 Chloroform mg/L 0.2
32 Bromoform mg/L 0.1
33 Dibromochloromethane mg/L 0.1
34 Bromodichloromethane mg/L 0.06
35 Selenium mg/L 0.01
36 Silver mg/L 0.05
37 Magnesium mg/L 150
38 Boron mg/L 0.5
39 Nickel mg/L 0.02
40 Mineral Oil mg/L 0.3
41 Phenol mg/L 0.002
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42 Aldrin/Dieldrin mg/L 0.00003

43 DDT mg/L 0.002
44 Heptachlor & Heptachlor Epoxide mg/L 0.00003
45 Methoxychlor mg/L 0.02
46 Lindane (BHC) mg/L 0.002
47 Chlordane mg/L 0.0002
48 Hexachlorobenzene mg/L 0.001

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Water Quality Standards in USA

Refer to Table 6-2 (pages 261 – 264) Davis & Cornwell

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Treatment systems

Potable water can be classified based on its source:

 Groundwater – generally uncontaminated, but can be
influenced by man-made spills and become contaminated
 Surface water – may also have unpleasant characteristics

Treatment systems can be classified as simple disinfection,

filter plants, or softening plants.

Generally, a filtration plant is used to treat surface water and

when necessary a softening plant is used to treat
groundwater (to remove hardness)

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Surface water treatment Plant

Fig 6-4 Flow diagram of a conventional surface water treatment plant (filtration plant)

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Water softening plant
The primary objective is to remove hardness (calcium
and magnesium)

Fig 6-5 Flow diagram of a water softening plant

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Typical surface water treatment process

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Surface water treatment process
Primary objectives are to
1. Remove suspended material (turbidity) and color
2. Eliminate pathogenic organisms

Treatment technologies largely based on coagulation and


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Coagulation Process
Surface waters must be treated to remove turbidity, colour,
and bacteria. The object of coagulation (and subsequently
flocculation) is to turn the small particles of colour, turbidity
and bacteria into larger flocs, either as precipitates or
suspended particles.

Coagulation applies to the removal of colloidal particles.

However, the term has been applied more loosely to the
removal of dissolved ions.

Coagulation is the method to alter the colloids so that they will

be able to approach and adhere to each other to form larger
floc particles

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Coagulation Process
Positive ion is added to the water to reduce the surface charge
to the point where the colloids are not repelled from each

Colloidal particles
(0.001 - 1 m)
(1 - 100 m)

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 Trivalent cation. Colloids are commonly negatively
charged and hence a cation is required to neutralize
 Non-toxic and relatively inexpensive
 Insoluble in neutral pH range - do not want high
concentrations of metals left in treated water

The 2 most commonly used coagulants are

 aluminum (Al3+) Alum [Al2(SO4)3.14H2O]
 ferric iron (Fe3+) Ferric sulfate: [FeSO4.xH2O] or Ferric
chloride: [FeCl3xH2O]

Refer to pages 274 – 277 Davis & Cornwell, on how these

coagulants work

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Refer to Example 6-1 Davis and Cornwell, on evaluating
coagulation efficiency using the jar test.

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Mixing and Flocculation
For the coagulant to work, the chemical must be mixed with
water. Rapid mixing is the process where the chemicals are
quickly and uniformly dispersed in the water.

During coagulation the chemical reactions that take place in

rapid mixing form precipitates. The precipitates formed must
be brought into contact with one another so that they can
agglomerate and form larger particles called flocs. This is
called flocculation. It is accomplished by slow, gentle mixing.

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Velocity Gradient
The degree of mixing is measured by the velocity gradient, G.
It is the amount of shear taking place: i.e. the higher the G
value, the more violent the mixing. It is a function of the power
input into a unit volume of water. It is given by:
Where G = velocity gradient, s-1
P = power input, W
 = volume of water in mixing tank, m3
 = dynamic viscosity, Pa.s

The total number of particle collisions is proportional to Gt,

where t is the detention time
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Rapid Mixing
Coagulant dose efficiency depends on rapid mixing. In
coagulation, the chemical reaction is completed in less than
0.1 s.

Rapid mixing is accomplished:

 Within a tank using a vertical shaft mixer (Figure 6-20)
 Within a pipe using an in-line blender (Figure 6-21)
 In a pipe using a static mixer (Figure 6-22)
 Others – Parshall flumes, hydraulic jumps, baffled
channels, air mixing etc.
 Detention time 2 – 5 minutes

Refer to page 301 for details on G values for rapid mixing

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Figure 6-20 Rapid mix tank

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Figure 6-21 Typical in-line blender

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6-22 Static mixer: A succession of reversing, flow twisting,
and flow-splitting elements provides positive dispersion
proportional to number of elements

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Rapid Mix Tanks
 Volume usually less than 8 m3.
 Mixing equipment consist of an electric motor, gear-type
speed reducer and impellers (radial-flow or axial-flow)
 Horizontally baffled into at least 2 compartments to
provide sufficient residence time
 Vertically baffled to prevent vortexing
 Table 6-9 gives tank and impeller geometries for mixing

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Fig 6-24 Basic flow patterns created by impellers

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Rapid mixing – more examples

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 Objective of flocculation is to bring the particles into
contact so that they will collide, stick together, and
grow to a size that will readily settle.
 Need to control the velocity gradient, G
 Typical detention time is 20 minutes
 Table 6-10 gives recommended values for G and Gto

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 Flocculation is usually accomplished with an axial-
flow impeller, a paddle flocculator, or baffled
 Axial-flow impellers are recommended over other
 Flocculator basins should be divided into at least 3

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Figure 6-25 Paddle flocculator

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Figure 6-25 Baffled chamber flocculator

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Power requirements
For rapid mixing and flocculation tanks, the power imparted
to the liquid in a baffled tank by an impeller may be
described by the following:

P  N p n 3Di 5  (6  23)

Where P = power, W
Np = impeller constant (also called power number)
N = rotational speed, revolutions/s
Di = impeller diameter, m
 = density of liquid, kg/m3

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The power imparted by a paddle mixer (Fig 6-25) is a
function of the drag force on the paddles
CD A  v p 3
P (6.24)

Where P = power, W
CD =coefficient of drag of paddle
 = density of liquid, kg/m3
A = cross-sectional area of paddles, m2
vp = relative velocity of paddles with respect to fluid, m/s

(Refer to page 305 for further details)

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Upflow Solids-Contact
Mixing, flocculation, and clarification may be conducted in
a single tank such as that in Figure 6-27. The influent raw
water and chemicals are mixed in the centre cone-like

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 Particles that will settle within a reasonable period of time
can be removed in a sedimentation basin (also called a
 Basins are usually rectangular or circular with either a
radial or upward water flow pattern.
 The design can be divided into 4 zones – inlet, settling,
outlet, and sludge storage.

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Fig 6-28
Zones of sedimentation
a) Horizontal flow clarifier
b) Upflow clarifier

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 The inlet zone is used to evenly distribute the flow and
suspended particles across the cross section of the
settling zone
 It consists of a series of inlet pipes and baffles
 If the tank is long enough, storage depth can be provided
by the bottom slope; if not, a sludge hopper is necessary
at the inlet end or the overall tank is made deeper.
 Mechanically-cleaned basins may be equipped with a
bottom scraper as shown in Figure 6-29 for a circular

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Figure 6-29
Photograph and
schematic diagram of
circular sludge scraper

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For horizontal tanks a bottom collection device is used such
as shown in Fig 6-30 below.

Fig 6-30 Vacuum sludge collection

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 The inlet zone is designed to remove the settled water
from the basin without carrying away any of the floc
 Within the sedimentation tank, the flow goes through a
large area, hence, the velocity is low. To remove the
water, if a pipe is used, the velocity will increase, which
will raise the settled floc from the basin (scouring).
 To avoid this, it is desirable to put a series of weirs, which
will provide a large area for the water to flow through and
minimize the velocity in the sedimentation tank at the
outlet zone
 The units for weir overflow rates are m3/d.m, which is
water flow (m3/d) per unit length of weir (m)

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Table 6-11 Typical weir overflow rates
Type of floc Weir overflow rate
(m /d.m)
Light alum floc 143 - 179
(low-turbidity water)
Heavier alum floc 179 - 268
(higher-turbidity water)
Heavy alum floc 268 - 322

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Figure 6-31
Weir arrangements:
a) Rectangular
b) circular

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 In a rectangular basin, the weirs often cover at least
one-third of the basin length.
 Spacing may be as large as 5 to 6 m on-centres but is
frequently on the order of one-half this distance

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Sedimentation Concepts

 Particle (floc) settling velocity, vs

 Velocity at which the tank is designed to operate,
called the overflow rate, v0. (m3/d.m2)

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 The particles fall downwards while the water rises vertically
 The rate at which the particle is settling down is the settling
velocity, vs
 The velocity of the liquid rising is the overflow rate, v0
 To be removed from the bottom of the clarifier, vs > v0

Fig 6-32 Settling in an upflow clarifier

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 If vs > v0, we can expect 100% particle removal
 If vs < v0, we can expect 0 % removal.
 In design, the procedure is to determine vs and set v0 at a
some lower value.
 Often v0 is set at 50 to 70 % of vs for an upflow clarifier
 The term overflow rate (m3/d.m2) is used since the water is
flowing over the top of the tank into the weir system.
 It is also called the surface loading rate
 It can be considered as the amount of water that goes
through each m2 of tank surface area per day

Time (Depth)(Su rface area) Depth
v0     Liquid velocity
Surface area (Time)(Sur face area) Time
t 0 h As h
v0   
As t 0 As t 0
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Horizontal sedimentation tank
Assumptions for an ideal horizontal sedimentation tank:
1. Particles and velocity vectors are evenly distributed across
the tank cross section. This is the function of the inlet zone
2. The liquid moves as an ideal slug down the length of the
3. Any hitting the bottom of the tank is removed

To remove particles from water it

must have a settling velocity great
enough so that it reaches the
bottom of the tank during the
detention time

h Figure 6-33
vs  t0 = detention time Ideal horizontal sedimentation tank

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h h hQ
vs    (6.30 )
t0 V V

But the tank volume is given by the height x length x width

hQ Q
vs   (6.31)
l w  h l w

vs  (6.32)

This implies that that particle removal in a horizontal clarifier

is independent of depth.

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Fig 6-34 Partial removal in ideal
sedimentation tank

 In a horizontal sedimentation tank (unlike an upflow clarifier), some

percentage of the particles with less than vs will be removed.
 Consider particles with settling velocity = 0.5v0 entering uniformly into
the settling zone. 50% of the particles (below half the depth of the
tank) will be removed
 Similarly, one-fourth of the particles with settling velocity of 0.25v0 will
be removed
 The percentage of particles removed, P, with a settling velocity of vs
in a sedimentation tank designed with an overflow rate v0 is given by:
P (6.33 )

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Determination of vs
To design an ideal sedimentation tank, determine the settling
velocity vs and then set the overflow rate v0 at some value less
than or equal to vs. Settling properties of particles can be
categorised into one of three classes:
 Type I Sedimentation – Dilute, non-flocculent, free-settling
(discrete). E.g. Sand and grit. Occurs during presedimentation
for sand removal prior to coagulation
 Type II Sedimentation - Dilute, flocculent. (Particles can
flocculate as they settle.) Size can change, hence settling
velocity also changes. Occurs in alum or iron coagulation,
primary sedimentation and settling tanks in trickling filtration
 Type III or Zone Sedimentation – Concentrated Suspensions (>
1,000 mg/L), Zone Settling. Particles settle in mass and a
distinct clear zone and sludge zone present. Occurs in lime-
softening sedimentation, activated-sludge sedimentation, and
sludge thickeners
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Types of Sedimentation

Type I Type II Type III

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Discrete settling
Refer to pages 318-319, Davis & Cornwell
FG  s gV p (6  34 )
FB  gV p (6  35 )
FD  CD Ap  (6  36 )
FG  FB  (s  )gV p (6  37 )

FG  FB  FD (6  38 ) The terminal settling velocity vs is

(s  )gV p  CD Ap  (6  39 )
For spherical particles
Vp ( d / 2) 3
of diameter d,  3  (6  40 )
Ap (d / 2)2 3
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Combining (6-39) and (6-40)
1/ 2
 4g (s  )d 
vs    (6  41)
 3 C D  

 The drag coefficient can be obtained below (refer to Fig 6-36)

 For high Reynolds number (>104) CD = 0.4
 For low Reynolds number (< 0.5) CD = 24/R (6-43)
 For the transition (between 0.5 and 104)
24 3
CD   1/ 2  0.34 (6  44 )

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Fig 6-35 Drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number

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For laminar flow, the Stoke’s law is used

g  s  d 2
vs  (6  45 )

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Flocculant settling
 Stoke’s law cannot be used. Jar tests are used to
develop design data.
 Jar tests can also be used to determine flocculated
particles settling velocity and hence overflow rate.
 The settling velocity corresponding to a given turbidity at
time t is given by:
10 cm
vs 
t, min

Typical overflow rates are 0.67 to 1.67 m/h or 1 to 3 cm/min

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Fig 6-37 Jar test settling curve

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Typical detention times for waters coagulated with alum
or iron salts are of the order of 2 to 8 hours.

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