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Semiconductors :

1. Introduction to Semiconductor
2. Type of Semiconductors
3. Intrinsic Semiconductors
4. Extrinsic Semiconductors
5. Doping
6. N Type Extrinsic Semiconductors
Semiconductors :

Semiconductors are solid material that have an electrical

conductivity value falling between that of a metal, like copper,
gold, etc. and an insulator, such as glass.

Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases,

which is behavior opposite to that of a metal.

Examples – Silicon, Germanium.

They are widely used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave

frequency integrated circuits etc
Different type of Semiconductors

1. Intrinsic / Pure Semiconductors

2. Extrinsic Semiconductors
- N Type Semiconductor
- P Type Semiconductor
Concept of Valence Electrons :

Each atom of any substance requires ‘8’ electrons in its outermost

orbit. if ‘8’ electrons are not present, then every atom will try to
fulfill the ultimate goal of acquiring it.

The electrons in the outermost orbit are called ‘Valence

When the outermost orbit does not have ‘8’ electrons, then there
will be as many vacancies as the lack of electrons in orbit. These
vacancies are always ready to accept electrons to fulfill eight
electrons in the outermost orbit of the atom.
Intrinsic Semiconductors :

 Silicon has 14 electrons which have been configured as 2, 8, 4.

It has 4 electrons at their outer-most orbit. Hence, there are

vacancies for more 4 electrons, to complete ‘8’ electrons in the
outermost orbit.
Intrinsic Semiconductors :

 The ‘4’ valence electrons fulfill these vacancies from the ‘4’
individual neighboring semiconductor atom. As shown in the
below picture :
i.e Atom1 shares its 4 electrons with Atom2, hence both the
Atoms now have a total of ‘8’ electrons.
Intrinsic / I type semiconductiors :

- Ideally, all valence electrons in a semiconductor crystal are

involved in forming of covalent bonds. Hence, there should not be
any free electron in the crystal.

- This scenario remains ideal at absolute 0 Kelvin

- But as the temperature increases, number of valence electrons in
the bonds are thermally excited and come out from the bond and
generate a number of free electrons in the crystal.
- These free electrons cause the conductivity of the
semiconductor materials at any temperature higher than
absolute zero.
- These semiconductors are called ‘Intrinsic’ semiconductors.
Intrinsic / I type semiconductiors :

- An intrinsic semiconductor, is also called as pure

semiconductor, undoped semiconductor or i-type

- They are without any significant impurities present

- The number of charge carriers is therefore

determined by the properties of the material itself
instead of the amount of impurities.
Extrinsic Semiconductors

- Extrinsic Semiconductors can be created by using the method

of doping.

- Doping is a method of increasing conductivity of semiconductors

at any temperature higher than absolute Zero. And also for giving
it different electrical properties than the intrinsic semiconductor.

- It is achieved by a process of adding controlled impurities to

intrinsic semiconductors to alter their properties.
Example :
– Adding Phosphorus to Silicon to create N Type SC
– Adding Gallium to Silicon to create P Type SC
N Type Semiconductor

- The N Type Semiconductor can be created by adding Pentavalent

Impurities (Eg. Phosphorus) to Semiconductor (Silicon)
- Phosphorous has 5 electrons in its outermost orbit, hence it is
called a Pentavalent Impurity.
- The Atomic structure of Phosphorus is (2,8,5)
N Type Semiconductor

- As phosphorous atom has 5 valence electrons in its

outermost orbit. So 4 of them will create covalent bonds with
four adjacent silicon atoms.

- Hence, ‘1’ valence electron of phosphorous atom does not get

chance to involve in covalent bonding and hence it is free to
move and not attached to the parent atom.

- Now, At room temperature, these loosely attached fifth valence

electrons of impurity atoms can come out from its position due
to thermal excitation. Due to this there will be considerable
number of free electrons.
N Type Semiconductor

This shows that each phosphorus atom donates one free electron.
Therefore, all the pentavalent impurities are called donors. The number of
free electrons are depends on the amount of impurity (phosphorus) added
to the silicon. A small addition of impurity (phosphorus) generates millions
of free electrons.
N Type Semiconductor

Also, there will be breakdowns of covalent bonds in the

crystal due to thermal excitation at room temperature.

Hence, Free electrons =

(Free Electrons left out of Phosphorous-Silicon Covalent bond)

(Free electrons due to breakdown of silicon-silicon covalent bond)

(Free electrons created due to breakdown of phosphorous-Silicon

Covalent bond)
N Type Semiconductor

- Whenever a free electron gets created during the breakdown

of a semiconductor to semiconductor covalent bond, there is a
vacancy created in the broken bond. These vacancies are
referred to as holes.

- Each of these holes is considered as a positive equivalent of a

negative electron as it gets created due to lack of one

Hence in a N Type Semiconductor : No. of Electrons > No. of Holes

N Type Semiconductor

- That is why free electrons are called majority carriers, and

holes are called minority carriers in the n-type

- As the negatively charged electrons mainly involve in charge

transferring through this semiconductor, it is referred to as
negative type or n-type semiconductor.

Note – Adding Pentavalent impurities (i.e. atoms with 5

electrons in Outermost orbit) creates N Type Semiconductors.