Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

Instrumentation and

Classification of Instruments
Instruments can be classified in the following main categories:
1. Analogue And Digital Instruments
2. Absolute and Secondary Instruments
3. Electrical and Electronic Instruments
Analogue and Digital Instruments
1. Analogue Instruments: An analog instrument is the one which uses analogue signal to
display the magnitude of the quantity under measurement.
2. Digital Instruments: The digital instrument uses digital signals to indicate/ display the
results of measurement in digital form.
Electrical and Electronic Instruments
Electrical Instrument:
The measuring instrument that uses mechanical movement of
electromagnetic meter to measure voltage, current, power, etc.
is called electrical measuring instrument. Example: d’Arsonval
Electronic Instrument:
any measurement system that uses d’Arsonval meter with
amplifiers to increase the sensitivity of measurements is called
electronic instrument. In short any digital measuring unit which
uses IC’s or chips for the measurement of current, voltage etc. is
called as an electronic instrument.
Absolute and Secondary Instruments
Absolute Instruments:
Absolute instruments are defined as the instruments that give
deflections in terms of physical constants and not measurable on a
graduated scale. The value of the electrical quantity to be measured
are given by these instruments.
The quantity are measured in terms of constants and from the
deflection of the instruments only.Example include: Tangent
galvanometer, Reyleigh current balance and absolute electrometer
Secondary Instruments:
They are defined as the instruments that give a ready measure of the
quantities with the help of graduated scales. The value of the electrical
quantity to be measured is determined from the deflection of these
instruments. With an absolute instrument these instruments are
calibrated. ie, the secondary instruments are compared with known
standards or absolute instruments.
Secondary Instruments
Majority of the electrical measuring instruments belong to the secondary instruments category.

There are three categories of secondary instruments.

1. Indicating instruments

2. Recording instruments

3. Integrating instruments

1. Indicating Instruments:
The value of the electrical quantity is indicated by these instruments at the time when it is being measured. Pointers
moving over the scale give the indication.
Ammeters, Voltmeters and wattmeters are the examples of these instruments.

2. Recording Instruments:
A continuous record of variations of the electrical quantity over a long period of time is given by these instruments. It
has a moving system which carries an inked pen which rests tightly on a graph chart.
Graphic recorders and galvanometer recorders are the examples of these instruments.

3. Integrating instruments
The total amount of either electricity or electrical energy supplied over a period of time is measured by these
Ampere hour meters, watt-hour meters, energy meters are the few examples of these instruments.
Measurements using Electrical
PMMC Meter
Stands for Permanent Magnet Moving Coil meter.
Also known as d’Arsonval meter.
A coil of fine wire is suspended in a magnetic field produced by permanent magnet.
According to the fundamental law of electromagnetic force, the coil will rotate in
the magnetic field when it carries an electric current by electromagnetic (EM)
torque effect.
A pointer is attached to the movable coil. This pointer will deflect according to the
amount of current to be measured which is applied to the coil. The (EM) torque is
counterbalanced by the mechanical torque of control spring attached to the
movable coil also.
When the torques are balanced, the moving coil will stop rotating and its angular
deflection represent the amount of electrical current to be measured against a
fixed reference, called a scale.
If the permanent magnet field is uniform and the spring is linear, the pointer
deflection will also be linear.
Deflecting and controlling Torque of
Deflection Torque
Controlling Torque
If the coil is carrying a current of i A,

the force on a coil side = Bil*N

The value of control torque depends
on the mechanical design of the
torque due to both coil sides = (2r)(Bil*N)
control device. For spiral springs and
= Gi strip suspensions, the controlling
and G = 2rBlN = NBA torque is directly proportional to the
Where: angle of deflection of the coil.
G = constant
Control torque = Cθ
A = 2rl = area of the coil
N = no. of turns of the coil.

B = flux density in Wb/m2. Θ= deflection angle in radians

l = length of the vertical side of the coil, m.
C = spring constant
2r = breadth of the coil, m

i = current in ampere.
Characteristics of Moving Coil Meter
The three important characteristics of A PMMC
1. Full-scale deflection current (Im),
2. Internal resistance of the coil (Rm),
3. Sensitivity (S).
Full-scale Deflection Current (Im)
The current needed to deflect the pointer all the way to the right
to the last mark on the calibrated scale.
Typical values of Im for D’ Arsonval movement vary from 2 mA to
30 mA.
For smaller currents, the number of turns in the moving coil has
to be more so that the magnetic field produced by the coil is
strong enough to react with the field of the permanent magnet
for producing reasonable deflection of the pointer.
Fine wire has to be used for reducing the weight of the moving
coil but it increases its resistance. Heavy currents need thick wire
but lesser number of turns so that resistance of the moving coil is
comparatively less.
The schematic symbol is shown
Internal Resistance (Rm)
It is the dc ohmic resistance of the wire of the moving coil. A movement with smaller Im has
higher Rm and vice versa.
Typical values of Rm range from 1.2 ohm for a 30 mA movement to 2 k ohm for a 50 mA
Sensitivity (S)
also known as current sensitivity or sensitivity factor.
It is given by the reciprocal of full-scale deflection current Im.

For example, the sensitivity of a 50-mA meter movement is:

Advantage of PMMC
Following are some of the advantages of PMMC which are important from the subject point of
1. It has uniform scale.
2. Operating current is small.
3. It has high sensitivity.
4. It consumes low power, of order of 25 W to 200 mW.
5. It has high accuracy.
6. Extension of instrument range is possible.
7. Not affected by eternal magnetic fields called stray magnetic fields.
Disadvantage of PMMC
PMMC has some disadvantages too. These are given below :
1. Used only for D.C measurements. The torque reverse if the current reverses. If the
instrument is connected to A.C., the pointer cannot follow the reversals and the deflection
corresponds to mean torque, which is zero, hence it cannot be used for A.C.
2. The cost of the instrument is high (for an accurate one!).