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SWAMI KESHVANAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

MANAGEMENT AND GRAMOTHAN

SEMINAR TOPIC
ARTIFICIAL ISLAND

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


MR.NISHANT SACHDEVA MANISH CHOUDHARY
(ASSISTANT PROFESSOR) 15ESKCE057

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• METHODS OF CREATION
• PALM ISLAND
o REASONS FOR CONSTRUCTION
o STEPS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION
o PROJECT TIMELINE
o CONSTRUCTION MACHINERIES USED
o ESTIMATION OF WAVE STRENGTH
o CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKWATER
o SAND FILLING AND COMPACTION
o CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS
o PROBLEMS FACED DURING CONSTRUCTION
INTRODUCTION
AN ARTIFICIAL ISLAND OR MAN-MADE ISLAND IS AN ISLAND OR GROUP OF ISLANDS THAT HAS BEEN
CONSTRUCTED BY PEOPLE RATHER THAN FORMED BY NATURAL MEANS. ARTIFICIAL ISLAND MAY
VARY IN SIZE FROM SMALL ISLETS RECLAIMED SOLELY TO SUPPORT A SINGLE PILLAR OF A
BUILDING OR STRUCTURE, TO THOSE THAT SUPPORT ENTIRE COMMUNITIES AND CITIES . SOME
EXAMPLES OF ARTIFICIAL ISLAND ARE PALM ISLANDS DUBAI, KANSAI AIRPORT JAPAN , DURRAT AL
BAHRAIN ETC.

Kansai International Airport(Japan)


METHODS OF CREATION

• EXPANDING EXISTING ISLETS


• CONSTRUCTION ON EXISTING REEFS
• AMALGAMATING SEVERAL NATURAL ISLETS INTO A BIGGER ISLAND.
• CONSTRUCTION ON SEA BED.
• LAND RECLAMATION
• OIL PLATFORMS
PALM ISLANDS
Palm Islands are three artificial islands, Palm Jumeirah, Deira Island and Palm Jebel Ali, on the coast of Dubai, United Arab
Emirates. Creation of the islands started in 2001. As of November 2011, only Palm Jumeirah has been completed. This
island takes the form of a palm tree, topped by a crescent.
After completion, Palm Jebel Ali will take a similar shape. Like Palm Jumeirah, each island will be host to a large number of
residential, leisure and entertainment centers and will add a total of 520 kilometers of non-public beaches to the city of
Dubai.
REASON FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PALM ISLAND

• DUBAI IS FAMOUS FOR ITS GOLD,TRADE AND OIL RESERVES .


• BY 2020 ITS MAIN INCOME OIL RESERVES WILL GET OVER.
• TO OVER COME THIS PROBLEM THE CROWN PRINCE HAD A 2 BILLON DOLLAR PLAN
TO CONVERT DUBAI INTO A LUXURIOUS TOURIST DESTINATION
• THE CROWN PRINCE IDEA WAS TO INCREASE THE TOURISM FROM 5 MILLION TO 15
MILLION
• BUT DUBAI'S TOURISM MAINLY DEPENDS UPON THE COASTAL AREA BUT THERE WAS
NOT ENOUGH SPACE FOR 15 MILLION PEOPLE SO HE DECIDED TO CONSTRUCT AN
ISLAND ON PERSIAN GULF.
STEPS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION

• STEP 1 : ESTIMATION OF WAVE STRENGTH


• STEP 2 : CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKWATER
• STEP 3 : SAND FILLING AND COMPACTION
• STEP 4 : CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS
PROJECT TIMELINE

• 1ST STAGE-
YEAR 2000-PROJECT ANNOUNCEMENT
YEAR 2001-2003:BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION
• 2ND STAGE-
YEAR 2003:LAND RECLAMATION COMPLETION
YEAR 2004-2006:CONSTRUCTION OF CITY
• 3RD STAGE-
YEAR 2006:PARTIAL COMPLETION
YEAR 2008:FINAL COMPLETION
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERIES USED
• 9 BARGES : A LONG FLAT-BOTTOMED BOAT FOR CARRYING FREIGHT ON CANALS AND RIVERS,
EITHER UNDER ITS OWN POWER OR TOWED BY ANOTHER.

• 4 DREDGERS :DREDGING IS THE OPERATION OF REMOVING MATERIAL FROM ONE PART OF THE
WATER ENVIRONMENT AND RELOCATING IT TO ANOTHER.

• 30 HEAVY LAND BASE MACHINES AND 10 CRANES WERE USED.

DREDGER BARGES LAND BASED MACHINERY


ESTIMATION OF WAVE STRENGTH

• ESTIMATION OF WAVE STRENGTH WAS DONE TO ESTIMATE THE STRENGTH OF WAVES


BECAUSE OF RISE IN SEA LEVEL DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING
• RESEARCH TEAM WORKED OUT THAT ARABIAN GULF IS ONLY 160 KM WIDE AND ONLY 30
METERS DEEP, HENCE TOO SHORT AND TOO SHALLOW FOR CATASTROPHIC WAVES TO
BUILT UP.

• THE STRUCTURE WAS TO BE MADE TO WITHSTAND ANY NATURAL DISASTER FOR 100
YEARS SO STRENGTH OF STORMS THAT MAY HIT THE PALM ISLAN IN THE FUTURE WAS
ESTIMATED.
CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKWATER

• A BREAKWATER IS A STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF FORMING AN


ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR WITH A BASIN TO PROTECT STRUCTURES FROM THE EFFECT OF
WAVES
• BREAKWATER WAS TO BE CONSTRUCTED HAVING HEIGHT UP TO 3 METERS AND 11.5 KM
LONG.

• TOTAL OF 40,000 OF THE WORKERS WERE HIRED FROM THE ASIA AND DIFFERENT PARTS OF
THE COUNTRY
• THERE WERE TWO SHIFTS OF 12 HOURS. SO, IT WAS BEING BUILT 24 HOURS.
THE BREAKWATER CONSIST OF THREE LAYERS
 INITIAL LAYER: OF SAND BUILT UP FROM THE SEA FLOOR.
 SECOND LAYER: ROCK THAT REACHES 3M ABOVE THE SEA LEVEL.

 FINAL LEVEL: ARMOR STONE ON TOP, 6 TONS EACH


 EACH PIECE OF ROCK WEIGHED ABOUT 6 TONS WHICH IS EXCAVATED FROM 16
QUARRIES ACROSS UAE.
SAND FILLING AND COMPACTION
• 94 MILLION CUBIC METER SAND WAS NEEDED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THIS ISLAND .
• THERE WERE ONLY TWO STRAIGHT LINES IN THE PALM ISLAND REST OF THEM WERE
CURVE.

• ON LAND IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO TELL THE SHAPE OF THE PALM .


• BY THE HELP OF GPS IT WAS MADE EASY.
COMPACTION
• THE SAND WAS JUST SPRAYED BUT WAS NOT COMPACTED .
• FIRST ENGINEERS THOUGHT OF ROLLER COMPACTING BUT LATER THEY CONSIDERED
EARTHQUAKE EFFECT AND ALLOWED VIBRO COMPACTION METHOD.

• LIQUIFICATION WOULD HAVE HAPPENED IF VIBRO COMPACTION WAS NOT DONE

VIBRO COMPACTION
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS
• BY MARCH 2004 PHASE 1 WAS FINISHED AND BY 2006 THE WHOLE CONSTRUCTION OF THE
BUILDINGS MUST BE DONE.
• BEFORE IT WAS ESTIMATED FOR 60,000 PEOPLE BUT LATER IT WAS MADE DOUBLE
BECAUSE OF DEMAND.

BUILDINGS ON PALM ISLAND


PROBLEMS FACED DURING CONSTRUCTION
• EROSION:-
o DUE TO WAVE ACTION THERE WILL BE SAND EROSION.
o DUE TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PALM ISLAND THE BEACH SAND IS ERODED IN
SOMEPLACE AND DEPOSITED IN SOMEPLACE.
o THIS WAS CHECKED USING DREDGERS.
AQUATIC LIFE
• THE ENVIRONMENTALISTS WERE WORRIED ABOUT THE CAROL REEF AND THE AQUATIC
LIFE WHICH WAS ANOTHER SOURCE OF INCOME.
• BUT THE STUDIES PROVED THAT THE BREAK WATER HAD GIVEN SHELTER TO MANY TYPE
OF FISHES AND THE CAROL REEF IS CREATED BY ITSELF , HENCE IT WAS PLANED TO
IMPROVE.
• THUS, THE ENVIRONMENTALIST HAD NO OBJECTION TO THE PROJECT