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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE

(AES 122)

PIGEON PEA
(cajanus cajan l. millsp.)

PRESENTED BY:
AMAN KUMAR(116017)
AMARDEEP GAUTAM(116018)
AMIT KUMAR(116019)
INTRODUCTION & ORIGIN
 It is commonly known as red gram or arhar.
 It accounts for about 11.8% of total pulse area and
17% of total pulse production of the country.

 The centre of origin is probably in India, where the


closest wild relatives (Cajanus cajanifolia) occur.
 Archaeological studies says that pigeon pea dating
to about 3400 years ago (14th century BC) have been
found at Neolithic sites in karnataka and its border
areas (tuljapur
Garhi in Maharashtra and Gopalpur in Orissa) and
also the south Indian states such as Kerala, where it
is called Tomara Payaru.
Classification
 Numerous types of cajanus are
known.
Cassified into two groups:-
 Cajanus indicus var. bicolor:- late
maturing variety.
 Cajanus indicus var. flavus:-early
maturing variety.
AREA AND PRODUCTION
 It is grown over an area of 3.5 million hectare with a
production of 2.8 million tonnes.
 The crop is extensively grown in Maharastra, Uttar
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh and Gujarat.
 The state of Uttar Pradesh has a unique distinctionof
contributing about 20% of the total arhar production
in the country.
•Worldwide Area, Production and
Productivity details for Redgram
during 2012 (SOURCE; www.ikisan.com)
Productivity in
Country Area ha. Production in Mt
Kg/Ha

World 5324322 4237122 796

India 3860000 2650000 687

Kenya 143212 89390 624

Malawi 203400 237210 1166

Myanmar 650000 900000 1385

Nepal 17471 14082 806

Uganda 101000 84,200 834


Botanical description
 Pigeon pea belongs to family leguminoseae.
 The plant height ranging from 1-4 meters.
 In most of the types the branching begins from the
sixth to the tenth nod i.e., from 15-25 centimeters
above ground.
 ROOT SYSTEM:-
It consists of a central tap root with numerous
laterals and secondary branches.
 LEAVES:-
central leaflet longer than lateral ones.
 The leaflets are entire and densely silky on the lower
surface . Stipules are small ; lamina hairy with the
under surface grayish due to dense hair.
 The intensity of the green colour of the leaves
differ with the variety.
 PODS:-
 The fruit of pigeon pea is a pod.
 It vary in length and width, the length varies from 5-
10 cm and the width varies from 0.6-0.9cm.
 the seed with in the pod vary in numbers,but there
are usually four to five in each pod in late maturing
varities and two to three in early maturing varities.
The pod vary in colour from green to dark brown.
SEED:-
 Round and lens shaped.colour of seed being white to
dirty white.
Climatic requirement
 The crop prefers a fairly moist and warm climate during the
period of its vegetative growth.
 During the flowering and ripening stages of its growth, it
requires bright sunny weather for the setting of fruits.
 Cloudy weather and excessive rainfall at flowering time
damage the crop to a great extent.
SOIL
•pigeon pea may be grown well, on a wide range of soils
varying from sandy loams to clay loams.
•well drained, alluvial, and loamy soil are good for its
cultivation.
 It is successfully grown in black cotton soils of Madhya pradesh
and maharashtra with proper drainage.
 the saline-alkaline and waterlogged soils are unfit for its
cultivation.
 FIELD PREPARATION
 Deep ploughing with soil turning plough followed by two to
three cross harrowing and proper leveling should be given to
ensure proper irrigation and drainage.
 Requires a deep and well pulverized field which is free from
weeds .
 Planking should follow each ploughing.
 SEED AND SOWING
 it should be sown in the first fortnight of June with pre-sowing
irrigation so that succeeding crop can be sown with least
delay.
 Under rain fed conditions sowing could be done with the onset
of monsoon in the later part of June or early July
Manures and Fertilizers
 One of the important reasons of poor yield of pigeon pea is
that its fertilization aspect is generally neglected. This crop is
a heavy feeder on the soil nutrients and hence care should be
taken to ensure that this crop does not suffer from lack of
nutrients.
 NUTRIENTS:-
 1) NITROGEN:-
 Being a leguminous crop , it utilizes atmospheric nitrogen
through symbiotic nitrogen fixation with the help of nodule
bacteria.
 On soils deficient in nitrogen ,there may be need of 20-30 kg
of nitrogen per hectare as a starter dose for pigeon pea crop.
 2) PHOSPHORUS and POTASSIUM:-
 About 80-100 kg phosphate per hectare would be needed on
soils poor in available phosphorus.
 Similarly on potassium deficient soils
,about 40-60 kg potash per hectare may be
applied for good yield of pigeon pea.
 3) ZINC:-
 The soils deficient in zinc should get zinc
sulphate at the rate of 20 kg per hectare
at the time of sowing.
 Zinc deficiency in the standing crop can be
rectified by spraying 5 kg zinc sulphate
and 2.5 kg lime dissolved in 800-1000 litres
of water per hectare.
VARIETIES:-
S.No. VARIETY MATURITY PLACE AVG. YIELD
TIME(DAYS) (QUINTAL PER
HECTARE)

1. PUSA-855 140-150 WESTERN 22-25


RAJASTHAN

2. AMAR 260-270 UTTAR PRADESH 25-30

3. NARENDRA ARHAR-1 260-270 UTTAR PRADESH 25-30

4. AZAD 260-270 UTTAR PRADESH 25-30

5. ICPL-151 260-270 UTTAR PRADESH 18-20

6. MANAK(H 77-216) 130-135 HARYANA 18-20

7. PARAS(H 82-1) 140-145 HARYANA 20-22

8. PUSA-9 130-140 ANDRHRA 16-20


PRADESH,BIHAR
9. ICPL-87 140-145 KARNATAKA, MP 18-20

10. PPH-4 145 PUNJAB 18-20


S.No. VARIETY MATURITY PLACE AVG. YIELD
TIME(DAYS) (QUINTAL PER
HECTARE)

11. TYPE 21 160-170 NORTH 16-20


WESTERN PART
12. S-20 180-190 WEST BENGAL 25

13. AL-201 140 PUNJAB 15-16

14. TYPE 7 260-270 UTTAR PRADESH 15-20

15. TYPE-17 270 UTTAR PRADESH 16-20

16. UPAS-120 120-125 PANTNAGAR 16-20

17. PUSA AGETI 150-160 BIHAR 18-20

18. LAXMI(KANKE-3) 180-190 BIHAR 20-22

19. BAHAR 250 BIHAR 20-25

20. JA-4 180 MADHYA 15-20


PRADESH
21. CO-6 130-140 TAMIL NADU 15
CROPPING SYSTEMS
 Practice of mixed cropping of pigeon pea is very common with
crops like ragi, kakun , blackgram etc.
 This crop is grown with wide row spacing. A lot of inter row
spaces which remain vacant initially and later on gets infected
by weeds.
 To utilize this space profitably blackgram (Pant v 30) ,moong ,
cowpea etc can be grown simultaneouslywhich gives about 4-7
quintals per hectare additional yield without affecting arhar’s
yield.
 Following trends are followed generally:-
 1. Pigeon pea-wheat
 2. Pigeon pea-late potato
 3. Pigeon pea-lentil
 4. Pigeon pea-sugarcane
 5. Pigeon pea-wheat-moong
 WATER MANAGEMENT:-
 Can tolerate drought.
 1-2 pre monsoon irrigations required for crop planted in June.
 In case of prolonged drought during reproductive period of growth , one or
two irrigations may be needed.
 During rainy season , water should not stand anywhere in the field.
 HARVESTING ,THRESHING AND YIELD
 Best time to harvest is when a large %age of the pods is mature.
 The plants are usually cut with a ‘gandasa’ or sickle within 7.5to 25 cm
above the ground and harvested plant is left in sun for drying and then
threshing is done by beating the pods with sticks generally.
 Pullman thresher can be used for this purpose . The proportion of seeds to
pods is generally 50 – 60 %.
 With the use of improved technology , pigeon pea may yield about 20-25
quintals of grain and 50-60 quintals of sticks per hectare.
DISEASES IN PIGEON PEA
S. NAME OF CAUSAL ORGANISM SYMPTOMS CONTROL
No. DISEASE

1. WILT FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM YELLOWISH 3-4 YEAR CROP


(FUNGUS) LEAVES & DRY ROTATION
OUT PLANT (AMAR,AZAD …)

2. STEM ROT PHYTOPHTHORA BROWN LESIONS PLANT RESISTANT


DRESHSLERI (FUNGUS) ON STEM NEAR VARIETIES,GOOD
SOIL SURFACE DRAINAGE

3. CANKERS DILOPDIA CAJANI CANKERS ON SPRAY WITH


(FUNGUS) STEM MANCOZEB 75
WP(2.5 KG/HC.)

4. STERILITY STERILITY MOSAIC VIRUS LIGHT GREENISH PLANT PUSA


MOSAIC COLOR 855,ASHA,SPRAY
WITH 0.1%
OXYDEETON
METHYL
INSECT PESTS
S. NAME OF PEST EFFECT CONTROL
No.
1. POD BORER PUNCTURE PODS & FEEDS HAND PICKING OF
ON DEVELOPING GRAINS CATERPILLARS,SPRAY WITH 1.5
LITRE ENDOSULFAN 35 EC
/HECTARE IN 1000L WATER
2. TUR POD FLY TWISTED PODS,STRIPED SPRAY WITH 1.5 LITRE
GRAIN SURFACE ENDOSULFAN 35 EC /HECTARE
IN 1000L WATER
3. PLUME MOTH ENTERS INTO POD,FEEDS SPRAY WITH ENDOSULFAN 35 EC
ON GRAINS @ 800-1000L/HECTARE
4. HAIRY DAMAGE CROP AT DESTROY EGGS, DUSTING 2%
CATERPILLAR SEEDLING STAGE METHYL PARATHION (YOUNG),
SPRAY WITH 1.5 LITRE
ENDOSULFAN 35 EC /HECTARE
IN 1000L WATER (FULL GROWN)

5. LEAF HOPPER SUCKS SAP FROM LEAVES, BASAL APPLICATION OF


LEAVES TURN BROWN PHORATE 10% GRANULES @ 10
KG / HECTARE
CONT..
S. No. NAME OF PEST EFFECT CONTROL

6. BEAN FLY ENTERS INTO STEM,YOUNG DISULFORTAN 5%


PLANTS DIE GRANULES @ 20
KG/HECTARE AT
SOWING TIME

7. GALERUCID BEETLE SMALL CIRCULAR HOLES ON BASAL APPLICATION OF


LEAVES PHORATE 10%
GRANULES @ 10 KG /
HECTARE

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