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INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

FOR MANUFACTURE AND


ASSEMBLY (DFMA)

J.JAYARAMAN

CENTRE FOR AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DESIGN


ENGINEERING
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY , BOMBAY
STRUCTURE OF THE
PRESENTATION
WHY AND WHEN:
EARLY MANUFACTURING KNOWLEDGE
IMPROVES PRODUCT SUCCESS
EXAMPLES OF BENEFITS
DFMA IN WORLD WAR II
WHAT:
WHAT IS INTEGRATED DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
STRUCTURE OF THE
PRESENTATION (CONTD.)
HOW:
HOW TO ACHIEVE INTEGRATED DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
-BDI SOFTWARE
-FMECA
EXAMPLES:
- ACCELERATION SENSING UNIT
-WORKED EXAMPLE
-POWER SUPPLY OF LASER Tx HIGH VOLTAGE
CONCLUSION
BEST PRACTICES TO
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATION DEMONSTRATION PRODUCTION

KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE
POINT 1
POINT 2 POINT3
PROGRAM
LAUNCH PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES CAN MEET
AND RESOURCES COST
DESIGN PERFORMS SCHEDULE
MATCH
AS EXPECTED AND
REQUIREMENTS
QUALITY
TARGETS
ATTAINMENT OD DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURING KNOWLEDGE
WEAPON SYSTEM % OF DWGS. COMPLETED % OF CRITICAL MFG. PROGRAM
PRIOR TO MFG. PROCESSES IN CONTROL EXPERIENCE
AT PRODUCTION

BEST PRACTICE
AT LEAST 90% DWGS. ALL CRITICAL MEET COST &
COMPLETED PROCESSES SCHEDULE
IN STATISTICAL TARGETS
CONTROL

AIM-9X 4% UNIT COST


(AIR-AIR MISSILE) 95% INCREASE
UNKNOWN
1 MONTH
PRODUCTION
DELAY

23% UNIT COST


F-22 FIGHTER 26%
44% INCREASE
18 MONTH
PRODUCTION
ATTAINMENT OF DESIGN & MFG.
KNOWLEDGE (contd.)
WEAPON SYSTEM % OF DWGS. COMPLETED % OF CRITICAL PROCESSES PROGRAM
PRIOR TO MFG. IN CONTROL AT PRODN. EXPERIENCE

F18 E/F FIGHTER NO UNIT COST


58% * 78%
INCREASE
3 MONTH
PRODUCTION
DELAY
PATRIOT
ADVANCED 159 % UNIT
CAPABILITY COST
21 % 35 % INCREASE
(PAC-3)
MISSILE 39 MONTH
PRODUCTION
DELAY
ADVANCED
THREAT 182 % UNIT
INFRARED COST
COUNTER- 21% INCREASE
MEASURES/ 0% 34 MONTH
COMMON MISSILE PRODUCTION
WARNING SYSTEM DELAY
BENIFITS OF DFMA
THERE IS A MUCH BETTEER OPPORTUNITY TO MEET
PREDICTED COST SCHEDULE AND QUALITY
TARGETS WHEN THE MANUFACURING PROCESS
DATA IS CAPTURED EARLY
BENEFITS OF DFMA
(CONTD.)
F 18 E/F HAS 42% FEWER PARTS THAN C/D
EVEN THOUGH IT IS 25% LARGER
REDUCED
-PRODUCTION COSTS
-DEFECTS
-REWORK
BY APPLYING DFMA BDI SOFTWARE & SOURCES
OF VARIATION IN THE PROCESS
BENEFITS OF DFMA
( CONTD.)
TOMOHAWK CRUISE MISSILE
STRATEGIC TACTICAL

PARTS 11500 7500


FASTENERS 2500 800
CIRCUIT CARDS 45 22
CONNECTORS 160 45
ASSEMBLY/ TEST
HOURS 610 195
UNIT PRODUCTION
COST $1000,000 $500,000
ASSEMBLYTIME FOR
BALL CAGE DEVICE
REDUCED TO 15SEC
FROM 130 SEC.

8 SCREWS TO NO
SCREWS
DFMA METHOD
OF ELIMINATING ASSEMBLY
FASTENERS OPERATIONS
FROM 83 TO
54

TOTAL ASSY.
TIME 592SEC.
TO 277 SEC.
RIBBON BASEPLATE
DIABLO PRINTER
OLD DESIGN 77 PARTS
NEW DESIGN
36 PARTS
COMPARISON OF ORIGINAL
NEW DESIGNS OF RETICLE
ASSY.

ORIGINAL DESIGN REDESIGN IMPROVEMENT%


ASSY. TIME HRS 2.15 0.33 84.7
NO. OF DIFF. PARTS 24 8 66.7
TOTAL NO. OF PARTS 47 12 74.5
METAL FABN. TIME HRS. 12.63 3.65 71.1
WEIGHT LBS. 0.48 .26 45.8
ORIGINAL

OPTION 1

PILOTS INSTRUMENT
PANEL

LONG BOW APACHE


AH-64D HELICOPTER
BOEING COMPANY

OPTION 2
PILOT’S INSTRUMENT
PANEL
ORIGINAL PANEL NEW PANEL
( OPTION 1 )
PARTS COUNT 74 9
FABRICATION TIME HRS. 305 20
ASSY./INSTALLATION TIME HRS. 149/153 8/153
TOTAL TIME HRS. 697 181
WEIGHT KG. 3.0 2.74
COST $ 56000 15000
Advantages of DFMA
 Typical results of DFMA application
 Results of 88 published case studies
Decreases
 51% parts count reduction
 37% parts cost
 50% time to market
 64% in assembly time
 57% in manufacturing assembly time
 58% in assembly operations
 69% in separate fasteners
 68% in assembly defects
 57% in service calls
68% in improvement in quality and reliability
Benefits of DFMA
 Shorter developmental schedules and reduced
cycle times.
 Better first article quality
 Development of robust product designs
 Easier transition of designs to production
 Better supplier product integration
 More effective risk management
McDonnel Douglas experience
 Reduce number of parts and fasteners used on aircraft
 It means fewer opportunities for defects
 For each fastener there is the chance that the hole will be
drilled in the wrong place or be the wrong size
 By reducing the number of fasteners – numbers of defects
reduced, therefore, produce a higher quality product
 Weight is critical. Fuel costs approximately $50,000 per
pound of aircraft weight over 6000 hrs of the life of the
aircraft
 There are 179000 on the FA-18 CD fasteners
 In previous models several parts were made of sheet metal
because machined parts were unable to reach minimum
gage limits
 With high speed machining – thinner gauge limits have
become possible
ACCELERATION SENSING ASSEMBLY

OPTION-I OPTION-II
COMARISON TABLE ASA OPTIONS
PARAMETER OPTION - I OPTION - II

NATURAL FREQUENCY 250 Hz 548 Hz


ESTIMATED ACCURACY ± 3.5 MINUTES ± 1.5 MINUTES
MEASURED ACCURACY ± 2.7 MINUTES ± 1.5 MINUTES
EMI GASKET PROVISION NO YES
SIZE 254 x 117 x 86 mm 254 x 117 x 78 mm
ESTIMATED WEIGHT (W/O ELECTRONICS) 1.90 Kg 1.80 Kg
MEASURED WEIGHT (W/O ELECTRONICS) 1.92 Kg 1.72 Kg
NUMBER OF FABRICATED PARTS 25 15
MACHINING TIME 18.1 Hours 8.3 Hours
MACHINING COST Rs 559.17 Rs 256.75
DFMA IN WW II
WORLD WAR II EXPERIENCE:
US AVIATION INDUSTRY GREWW TEN FOLD
P-51 MUSTANG FIGHTER
- TO FACILITATE EASE OF MANUFACTURE
STABILISERS FINS WINGTIPS SQUARED OFF
- FUSELAGE – THREE SECTIONS- COMPLETE
PLUMBINGS, CABLE DISCONNECTS TO
FACILITATE ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY
FOR PACKING AND SHIPPING
DFMA IN WW II (CONTD.)
DFMA INFLUENCE ON DESIGN OF GRUMMAN F-6F
HELLCAT
- USED FEWER COMPOUND CURVES IN
EXTERNAL DESIGN-UGLY- SEVERELY
CLIPPED WINGS
- PRODUCED IN LARGE QUANTITIES
- 32 KPH SLOWER THAN F4U HERITAGE 1980
DFMA INFLUENCE PERMITTED SHIPMENT BY
BOAT OR LAND. OUT WING PANELS AND EVEN TAIL
ASSEMBLIES REMOVED AND REPLACED AT THE
DESTINATION POINT.
SPITFIRE VS.
MESSERCHMIDST
IN 1940 Me’s OUTNUMBERED SPITFIRES THREE TO
ONE. DESIGN ATTRIBUTABLE TO DFMA
PHILOSOPHY. Me’s 4000 LABOUR HOURS TO
SPITFIRE 13000 HOURS
AIR WAR HISTORIANS DESIGNATE SPITFIRES AS
THE BETTER AIRCRAFT, THE LONG AND
SUCCESSFUL CAREER OF ME 109’s DURING ARAB
ISRAELI WAR 1948 DEMONSTRATED THAT MAJOR
ATTENTION TO DFMA PRODUCES EFFECTIVE
AIRCRAFT DESIGN EVEN AS EARLY AS 40’s
SPITFIRE VS.
MESSERCHMIDST.
SPITFIRE:
DESIGNED FOR AERODYANAMIC
PERFORMANCE AND STRUCTURAL
EFFICIENCY
BEAUTIFUL ELLIPTICAL WINGS CHOSEN FOR
AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE WAS A
NIGHTMARE TO MASS PRODUCE
DIFFICULT TO LEARN TO FLY, HIGHLY
MANOEUVERABLE
WAS PRODUCED IN LARGE NUMBERS
BECAME A MAJOR FORCE IN BATTLE OF
BRITAIN AIR CAMPAIGN 1940-41
SPITFIRE VS.
MESSERCHMIDST
MESSERCHMIDST
DESIGN WAS A DFMA CLASSIC
A MINIMUM OF COMPOUND CURVES USED IN THE
EXTERIOR
RUDDER AND HORIZONTAL STABILISERS WERE
SQUARED OFF FOR PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY
COCKPIT CANOPY WAS MADE ALMOST ENTIRELY
OF FLAT GLASS
20 MM CANNON FIRED THROUGH A HOLLOW
PROPELLER SHAFT TO OVERCOME
COMPLEXITIESOF WING INSTALLATION AND TO
ELIMINATE SIGHTING PARALLAX
INTEGRATED DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURE
SIMULTANEOUSLY ADDRESS DESIGN FOR
PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HAS ALIGNED DESIGN
ENGINEERS IN REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS, THE
DEVELOPMENT OF FUNCTIONAL FLOWS etc.
INCLUDING THE ASPECTS OF MANUFACTURING
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE SYSTEM
ENGINEERING PROCESS HAS BEEN MORE DIFFICULT
TO ACHIEVE
DESIGN HAS DIFFERENT
MEANINGS

TO SOME IT IS AESTHETIC DESIGN


TO SOME IT MEANS ESTABLISHING THE BASIC
PARAMETERS OF A SYSTEM
TO SOME IT IS DETIALING OF THE MATERIALS,
SHAPES,AND TOLERANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL PARTS
OF THE PRODUCT
DFMA ADDRESSES THE LAST ASPECT OF PRODUCT
DESIGNS
DFMA
THREE MAIN APPROACHES TO DESIGN FOR
ASSEMBLY HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED AND USED
Viz.:
DESIGN HEURISTICS
DESIGN RATINGS
DESIGN REVISION
DESIGN HEURISTICS
GENERAL SET OF RULES eg.:
MINIMIZE THE NUMBER OF PARTS &
ASSEMBLY DIRECTIONS
AVOID PARTS THAT SHINGLE TANGLE etc.
HEURISTICS CAN BE APPLIED TO A
DESIGNER’S THINKING PRIOR TO ACTUAL
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OR ONCE AN
ASSEMBLY IS COMPLETE
USED TO SIMPLIFY PRODUCT
DESIGN RATING

PROVIDE RATINGS FOR COMPONENTS AS


WELL AS OVERALL DESIGN
ASSEMBLY RATINGS CAN BE CALCULATED
BDI HAS THEORETICAL HANDLING AND
MATING RATINGS
OTHER DFA RATING METHODS PROVIDE
DIFFERENT SCHEMES
DESIGN REVISION METHOD
COMBINATION OF HEURISTICS AND RATING
METHOD eg. BDI
BDI COMBINES A COMPONENT RATING SCHEME
WITH AN ASSEMBLY TIME AND COST ESTIMATION
METRIC AS WELL AS SPECIFIC RULES IN AN
ORDERED SEQUENCE FOR DECIDING HOW TO
REVISE A DESIGN. THIS HAS ENABLED PRODUCT
DESINERS IN MINIMISING ASSEMBLY SIMPLICITY
DFMA METHODOLOGY
WALKING THROUGH A CONCEPTUAL OR
EXISTING DESIGN IN A VERY SPECIFIC
PROCEDURE THROUGH OUT
THE PROCEDURE FOLLOWED AND THE DATA
BASE SYSTEM ALLOWS A DESIGN ENGINEER OR
CROSSFUNCTIONAL TEAM TO ANALYSE AND RATE
PRODUCT DESIGNS FOR EASE OF ASSEMBLY,
DESIGN EFFICIENCY AS WELL AS PREDICT
PRODUCT ASSEMBLY AND MANUFACTURING
COST
DFMA
METHODOLOGY(CONTD.)

CAD RESULTED IN POWERFUL QUANTITATIVE


OR ANALYTICAL TOOLS, PROVIDED BASIS FOR
JUDGING A DESIGNER’S PERFORMANCE. DFMA
HAS GIVEN MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS SUCH A
TOOL.
DFMA IS ATTEMPTING TO FORESEE AT THE
PRODUCT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STAGE , WHAT
MANUFACTURING ASSEMBLY AND QUALITY
PROBLEMS WILL BE TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER
PRODUCT
DFMA tools

 Are tools for DFM & DFA


DFM TOOLS DFM ACTIVITY

OPTIMIZE SIMPLIFY ENSURE OPTIMIZE


PROCESS PRODUCT
DFM TOOLS CONCEPT
CONFORMANCE FUNCTION

DESIGN AXIOMS

DFM GUIDELINES

DESIGN FOR ASSY. METHOD

TAGUCHI METHOD

MFG. PROCESS DESIGN RULES

DESIGNERS TOOLKIT

COMPUTER AIDED DFM

GROUP TECHNOLOGY

FMEA

VALUE ANALYSIS
DFM METHODOLOGY COMPARISON (CONTD)
KEY TO DISADVANTAGES
KEY TO ADVANTAGES A. INTERPRETATION NOT ALWAYS SIMPLE
A. NARROW RANGE OF POSSIBILITIES B.. REQUIRES “BUY IN” ON PART OF USER
B. RESULTS IN INHERENT ROBUSTNESS C. EXCEPTIONS ARE NOT INDICATED
C. READY REFERENCE TO BEST D. RATES ONLY EASE OF ASSY.DOES NOT
PRACTICES ADDRESS PART HANDLING OR OTHER
D. EMPHASISES EFFECTS OF RELATED MFG. PARAMETERS
VARIATIONS E. DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES INPUT FROM
E. HELPS IDENTIFY AND PRIORITIZE EXPERIENCED EXPERTS FAMILIAR WITH
CORRECTIVE ACTION SPECIFIC PROCESS CAPABILITIES AND
F. PROVIDES BOTH GUIDANCE AND NEEDS
EVALUATION F. TO BE USED ON A REGULAR BASIS
G. CAN SHORTEN DESIGN /TOOLING IMPLEMENTATION MUST BE USER
CYCLE FRIENDLY
H. CAN REDUCE TOOLING AND G. MUST BE DEVELOPED AND/OR
FIXTURING COST CUSTOMISED FOR EACH SPECIFIC
APPLICATION
H. OFTEN REQUIRES DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN
KEY TO APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
A. MECHANICAL AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES AND ASSEMBLIES
B. ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND SYSTEM
C. MANUFACTURING AND OTHER PROCESSES
D. SOFTWARE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM INTEGRATION
E. MATERIAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES
F. SPECIFIED AND OR UNIQUE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES SUCH AS
FLEXIBLE ASSEMBLY SYSTEMS
DFMA application areas
DFMA has been applied successfully to
 Structural design
 System design
 Landing gear system
 Flight controls
 Electrical, electronic hydraulic systems
 Environment controls
COST AND EASE OF MODIFICATIONS
BENIFITS OF IMPROVED ASSY.

MANUAL DESIGN ASSEMBLY EFFICIENCY (%)


( DFA INDEX )
IMPROVED ASSEMBLY DESIGN EFFICIENCY RESULTS IN INCREASED RELIABILITY
When to apply DFMA
 WHEN CONCEPTUAL LAYOUTS ARE BEING
MADE. THEN DESIGNER ENVISIONS AN
ASSEMBLY EASY TO INSTALL THAT
REQUIRES MINIMUM NUMBER OF PARTS TO
PERFORM THE REQUIREMENTS PREVIOUSLY
ESTABLISHED
 WHEN ASSEMBLY LAYOUTS ARE BEING MADE.
DESIGNER IMPLEMENTS OPTIMISATION TO
EASE OF MANUFACTURING , RELIABILITY
AND MAINTAINABILITY
Who are using DFMA
 Over 400 companies and institutions
 Aerospace companies
 Allied signal
 Hughes Aircraft
 McDonnell Douglas Corpn.
Have implemented DFMA philosophy throughout
their product line
 Automotive industries
 Medical electronic equipment
 PC – industry and others
DFMA Team
Multidisciplinary teams
 Design engineers
 Manufacturing engineers
 Shop floor mechanics
 Suppliers reps
 Specialist in product support
 Maintainability
 Reliability
DFMA
 BDI software
 Is used by manufacturing team members to
estimate and predict the savings that can be
obtained.
 Data are entered system does its analysis in
different areas.
 A complete listing of all the activities required to
perform the assembly including
 It provides complete overview of the tasks to be
performed
DFMA TECHNIQUE

DESIGN CONCEPT

SUGGESTIONS FOR
DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY SIMPLIFICATION FOR
( DFA ) PRODUCT STRUCTURE

SELECCCTION OF
SUGGESTIONS FOR
MATERIALS AND
MORE ECONOMIC
PROCESSES AND EAZRLY
MATERIALS AND
COST ESTIMATES
PROCESSES

BEST DESIGN CONCEPT

DETAIL DESIGN FOR


DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE MINIMUM MANUFACTURING
( DFM ) COST

PROTOTYPE PRODUCTION
BDI software
 It does an assembly analysis profile on a standard format where it theorizes the
number of tasks to be performed, fasteners required, connectors to be installed,
candidates for elimination, acquisition of items not in reach or in stock,
requisition of tools not in hand, standard operations, library of operations and
recommendations.
 All these activities are numbered and plotted. It automatically provides
suggestions for improvement.
 System provides suggestions for design and indicating every task with its time
saving and its percentage reduction. It indicates specific instructions to
perform the related tasks in order to obtain the suggested savings.
 It also lists design for assembly analysis totals all parameters used for analysis
such as total assembly time, totally assembly cost, total assembly weight,
number of parts, sub assemblies theoretical minimum numbers of parts or
unanalysed sub assemblies and the hourly labour rate.
 All suggestions and comments included in the computer generated tables are
automatically provided to aid the designers and manufacturing engineers to
obtain a better view of the job
Questions asked in DFMA about
each part in a product design
 Does the part move with respect to other parts
already assembled
 Must the part be made from a different material
or isolated from all other parts already
assembled
 These questions lead the reviewers to re-
evaluate each part and process that has been
specified
 If a part does not meet any of these criteria – it is
a candidate for elimination or consolidation with
another part
Results of Design for Assembly (DFA) Analysis for the Motor Drive
Assembly Redesign
TYPICAL FUNCTIONAL
FLOW

1.3.2.1.1 1.3.2.1.2
CHARGE STORAGE 1.3.2.1.3
RECEIVE PULSE
CAPACITOR DISCHARGE CAPACITOR
INITIAE SIGNAL
THROUGH LASER DIODE 1

1.3.2.1.4
1.3.2.1.6 1.3.2.1.5 CREATE LASER
TRANSMIT PULSE CREATE LASER PULSE ENERGY.
THROUGH LENS PULSE SHAPE
TYPICAL PROCESS FLOW
P 1.1
PRODUCE ACTIVE
TRANSMITTER

P 1.2
PRODUCE ACTIVE
RECIEVER

P 1.6
P 1.3 AND P 1.7
ASSEMBLE INTO
AND PRODUCE PASSIVE PRODUCE LOWER
UPPER HOUSING
RECEIVER HOUSING ASSEMBLY
ASSEMBLY

P 1.4
PRODUCE FLEX.
ASSEMBLIES

P 1.5 SEE NEXT SLIDE


PRODUCE PWB
ASSEMBLIES
TYPICAL PROCESS FLOW (CONTD)

P 1.3.4
P 1.3.1 P 1.3.2 P 1.3.3 PICK AND PLACE
CODER CLEAN BOND WIRE BOND PbSe
ATTACH PADS CODER INTERCONNECT
STANDOFF

P 1.3.2
CLEAN BOND PADS

P 1.3.6 P 1.3.5
INSPECT WIRE BOND
PbSe
ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE
MFG. KNOWLEDGE
 IDENTIFY KEY SYSTEM CHARECTERISTICS AND CRITICAL
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
 DETERMINE PROCESS IS IN CONTROL AND CAPABLE
 CONDUCT FMEA
 SET RELIABILITY GROWTH PLAN AND GOALS
 CONDUCT RELIABILITY GROWTH TESTING
 CONDUCT REVIEW TO BEGIN PRODUCTION

Contd..
BEST APPROACH TO
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
SYSTEM
TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION
INTEGRATION & DEMONSTRATION
DEVELOPMENT

KP1 KP2 KP3

TECHNOLOGY MATURITY

DESIGN MATURITY

PRODUCTION MATURITY
CONCLUSION

THE NEED FOR DFMA DURING EARLY STAGES OF PRODUCT


DEVELOPMENT IS SEEN
TWO METHODS Viz. BDI AND FMECA APPROACHES APPEAR TO
BE YIELDING EXCELLENT RESULTS.
A COMBINATION OF THE TWO IS LIKELY TO SERVE OUR
PURPOSE BOTH IN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS
ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE STABLE
DESIGN KNOWLEDGE

LIMIT DESIGN CHALLENGE


DEMONSTRATE DESIGN MEETS REQUIREMENTS
COMPLETE CRITICAL DESIGN REVIEWS
STAKE HOLDERS AGREE DRAWINGS COMPLETE
AND PRODUCIBLE
REVIEW TO BEGIN INITIAL MANUFACTURING
PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX &
PROBABILITY OF A DEFECTIVE PART

MFG. PROCESS CAPABILITY (Cpk) ASSOCIATED DEFECT RATE

Cpk .67 ( NOT CAPABLE) 1 IN 22 PARTS PRODUCED

Cpk 1.0 ( MARGINALLY CAPABLE )


1 IN 370 PARTS PRODUCED

Cpk 1.33 ( INDUSTRY STD.) 1 IN 15152 PARTS PRODUCED

Cpk 2.0 ( INDUSTRY GROWTH


GOAL) 1 IN 500,000,000 PARTS PRODUCED
ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE MFG.
KNOWLEDGE
IDENTIFY KEY SYSTEM CHARECTERISTICS AND
CRITICAL MFG. PROCESSES
DETERMINE PROCESSES IN CONTROL AND CAPABLE
CONDUCT FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS
SET RELIABILTY GROWTH PLAN AND GOALS
CONDUCT RELIABILITY GROWTH TESTING
REVIEW TO BEGIN PRODUCTION
EXAMPLES OF
PROTOTYPES USED
PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCTION
INTEGRATION DEMONSTRATION

PROTOTYPE ENGG. PROTOS. PRODUCTION


VIRTUAL OR REPRESENTATIVE INITIAL PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROTOTYPES

PURPOSE DEMONSTRATE DEMONSTRATE


FORM FIT PRODUCT IS DEMONSTRATE
FUNCTION AND CAPABLE RELIABLE READY FOR FULL
A STABLE DESIGN AND MFG. PROCESSES SCALE PRODUCTION
IN CONTROL

BUILD MFG. FIRST SET OF PRODUCTION ALL


ENGINEERING PRODUCTION TOOLING RATE TOOLING
ENVIRONMENT
Advantages of DFMA
 Ford $ 1.2 billion in ’87 using DFA alone
 GM 30-60% on certain projects in ’89
 MD-11 cargo liner savings per aircraft $ 86,000, a
bulkhead – cost saving $4,000
 McDonnel Douglas has ranged 36-96% parts
count reduction on several of its aircraft
component assemblies
 FA-18 CD bay shelf design savings
 84% in number of parts
 73% in cost
 11% in weight
 89% in assembly time
WHAT IS DFMA (CONTD.)

DFMA ENCOURAGES CONCURRENT ENGINEERING


DURING PRODUCT DESIGN SO THAT PRODUCT
QUALITIES RESIDE WITH BOTH THE DESINERS AND
OTHER MEMBERS OF THE PRODUCTION TEAM
IT IS A COMMUNICATION TOOL FOR THE TEAM
IT IS A BENCH MARKING TOOL
IT DEFINES THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
CAPABILITIES OF SELF AND COMPETITOR
WHAT IS DFMA (CONTD.)

IT PROVIDES A NON-THREATENING WAY TO GET


PEOPLE TALKING ABOUT A DESIGN WITHOUT
FEELING LIKE OTHERS ARE ENCROACHING ON
THEIR TERRITORY

EINSTEIN SAID “ THE BEST DESIGN IS THE


SIMPLEST ONE THAT WORKS “. DFMA PROVIDES
THE CHEAPEST WAY TO THAT GOAL
WHAT IS DFMA

DFMA IS AN EXACTING DESIGN REVIEW


METHOD
IT IDENTIFIES:
-OPTIMAL PART DESIGN
-MATERIAL CHOICE
-ASSEMBLY AND FABRICATION OPERATIONS
TO PRODUCE AN EFFICIENT AND COST
EFFECTIVE PRODUCT
IT REVEALS THAT INITIAL IDEAS MAY NOT BE
THE MOST EFFECTIVE (CONTD.)