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# TOPIC: -

CONDENSATION

Presentation by: -
Akash kumar(BT17CME006)
CONDENSATION
• It is the reverse phenomenon of the evaporation of liquid.
• Heat is released during the former while it is absorbed during the later
process.
• If the temperature of a vapour is reduced below its saturation temperature,
condensation occurs.
• It is surface phenomenon.

## Two ways by which condensation may appear to be occurring: -

(a). Film wise condensation.
(b). Drop wise condensation.
FILM WISE CONDENSATION
• The condensate liquid spread out over the whole surface and a continuous film is
formed .
• The vapour condenses at the liquid interface because of the heat transferred
through the liquid film.
• The condensate liquid flows downwards under the influence of gravity.
• At low vapour velocity the liquid film may be very thick and the heat transfer
through the film may be primarily due to conduction.
• The rate of heat flow to the wall thus depends upon the thickness of the film and
therefore on the rate of condensation and that of removal of condensate from the
surface.
• Since the condensate film plays an important role during the whole phenomena
and this is called film condensation
• This is the type which is usually found in engineering practice.
FILM CONDENSATION ON A VERTICAL WALL
This analysis is based on following assumption: -
1. The vapour is pure and at temperature tsaturated.
2. The surface temperature tw is uniform.
3. The temperature distribution in the liquid is linear.
4. The velocity profile through the film is parabolic and is given by

## 5. No shear stress exits at the liquid vapour interface

THE LOCAL THICKNESS OF CONDENSATE FILM CAN BE GIVEN BY

If the h is the heat transfer coefficient for the condensate film, heat flux
through the film at any location x is

Therefore, we get
The local nusselt number is
DROP WISE CONDENSATION
• Liquid does not wet the surfaces, but the droplets form and run down
the surface coalescing as they travel, the phenomena is called drop
wise condensation.
• The mechanism of this type is not well understood nor there is enough
knowledge about the prediction of associate heat transfer.
• It is noted that the rate of heat transfer in dropwise condensation is
about 15 to 20 times that for film condensation under same
temperature difference.
• Hence drop wise condensation is very desirable but the condition
under which it occurs are difficult to achieve.
• It occurs usually on those surfaces which are contaminated by
substance which prevent the condensate from wetting the whole
surface.
TURBULENT FILM CONDENSATION
CONDENSATION OUTSIDE A HORIZONTAL TUBE OR A TUBE
TANK
CONDENSATION ON SINGLE HORIZONTAL TUBE

## Condensation on vertical tier of N horizontal tubes

Condensation occurring on the subcooled film between two adjacent
tubes
CONDENSATION INSIDE A HORIZONTAL TUBE
REFERENCES
• Books
(a) HEAT TRANSFER: principles and application by B. K. dutta
(b) ENGINEERING HEAT TRANSFER by C. P. gupta