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DC Motors

 A DC motor is any of a class of rotary
electrical machines that converts direct
current electrical energy into mechanica
l energy. The most common types rely
on the forces produced by magnetic fiel
ds. Nearly all types of DC motors have
some internal mechanism, either electro
mechanical or electronic, to periodically
change the direction of current flow in
part of the motor.
Principles of Operation
 DC motors convert electrical into mechani
cal energy.
 They consist of permanent magnets and
loops of wire inside.
 When current is applied, the wire loops gene
rate a magnetic field, which reacts against the
outside field of the static magnets.
 The interaction of the fields produces the
movement of the shaft/armature.
 Thus, electromagnetic energy becomes
There are 4 main types of DC
 The permanent magnet motor uses a
permanent magnet to create field flux.
 Series DC motor, the field is wound with a
few turns of a large wire carrying the full
armature current.
 Shunt DC motors the field is connected in p
arallel (shunt) with the armature windings.
 Compound DC motors, like shunt DC motor
s, have a separately excited shunt field.
The Basic Idea
 A motor uses magnets to create motion.
 The fundamental law of all magnets: Opposit
es attract and likes repel.

 Inside an electric motor, these attracting and r

epelling forces create rotational motion.
How do magnets arise?

 There are two main sources of magnetic

– magnetic fields due to
electric currents in
conducting materials.
– fields arising from
magnetic materials.
When a current flows through a conductor, a mag
netic field surrounds the conductor. As current flo
w increases, so does the number of lines of force
in the magnetic field increases.
The Motor

A simple motor has 6 parts:

• Armature or rotor
• Commutator
• Brushes
(graphite or carbon)
• Axle
• Field magnet
• DC power supply
Armature, Commutator & Brushes
 The armature takes the place of the nail in an
electric motor. The armature is an electromag
net made by coiling thin wire around two or m
ore poles of a metal core.
The "flipping the elect
ric field" part of an elec
tric motor is accomplis
hed by two parts: the
commutator and the b
Electric and magnetic fields:
 A current-carrying wire in a magnetic field
experiences a force.

 The magnitude and direction of this force depend on f

our variables: the magnitude and direction of the curr
ent (I), the length of the wire (L), the strength and dire
ction of the magnetic field (B), and the angle between
the field and the wire (Θ).

Where current is in amperes, length in meters, and m

agnetic field in teslas, the force is in newtons.

 The direction of the force is perpendicular to both the

current and the magnetic field, and is predicted by th
e right-hand cross-product rule.
A Real DC Motor

There are two primary advantages to DC

 Speed Variation
 Torque.

Disadvantages are high maintenance

and low life-span for high intensity uses.
Maintenance involves regularly replacin
g the carbon brushes and springs which
carry the electric current, as well as clea
ning or replacing the commutator.