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McDonald

Dettol

Life boy

Importance

For Marketers

For Consumers

For Society

Objective of Research:

Reduce Marketing Cost

Provide Proper Planning

To find new market and Product

To determine new policy

To understand consumer

To know competition

Strategic

◦ Segmentation

◦ Targeting

◦ Positioning

◦ Product identification

Tactical

◦ Pricing

◦ Promotion

◦ Advertising

◦ 4ps

Marketing Research is the function that links the

consumer, customer, and public to marketer

through information: information used to identify

and define marketing opportunities and problem;

generate, refine, and evaluate marketing action;

monitoring marketing performances; and

improve understanding marketing as a

process.(AMA)

The systematic and objective identification,

collection,analysis,dissemination and use of

information for the purpose of assisting

management in decision making related to the

identification and solution of problems and

opportunities in market.(Naresh K Malhotra)

Marketing Research

Segmentation research

Market Share Research

Product Research

Image Research

Price Research

Market Characteristic Research

Promotion Research

Sales analysis Research

Distribution Research

Forecasting research

Marketing information System: A Marketing

information system is a formalised set of procedures for

generating, analysing, storing, and distributing information to

marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis.

E.g.: Fedral Express – FedEx( Segment management

Marketing)

Type of data that can be analysed through (MKIS)

Acquired databases

Internal company data

Marketing intelligence

Marketing research

Limitation of MKIS

Rigidly Structured can’t easily manipulated

Evaluation and control of MR

◦ The individual project

◦ The total research activity within firm

Methods

◦ Checklist

◦ Flow chart

◦ Gantt Chart

◦ PERT Technique

◦ Advisory Committee

Problem Identification

Development Of an approach to Problem

Research Design Formulation

Definition of information

Secondary data

Qualitative Research

Quantitative research

Measurement and scaling Procedures

Questionnaire Design

Sampling Process and sampling size

Plan data Analysis

Data collection

Data Preparation & Analysis

Report Preparation and Presentation

E.g. Harley-Davison

Coke's ill-fated decision to change the formula of Coca-

Cola in 1985 is a case in point: Pepsi had been creeping

up on Coke in terms of market share over the years as well

as running a successful promotional campaign called the

"Pepsi Challenge," in which consumers were encouraged to

do a blind taste test to see if they agreed that Pepsi was

better. Coke spent four years researching "the problem."

Indeed, people seemed to like the taste of Pepsi better in

blind taste tests. Thus, the formula for Coke was changed.

But the outcry among the public was so great that the new

formula didn't last long, just a matter of months, before

the old formula was reinstated. Some marketing experts

believe Coke incorrectly defined the problem as "How can

we beat Pepsi in taste tests?" instead of "How can we gain

market share against Pepsi?"

Need all the information required by decision

makers

Guide researcher to proceed with project

Researchers are mistaken in:

Defining problem too broadly

Defining problem too narrowly

Total Error

Respondent

Researcher errors Interviewer error

error

Surrogate Information

Respondent Selection Error

Measurement

Questioning Error

Population definition Error Inability Error

Recording Error

Sampling Frame Error Unwillingness Error

Cheating Error

Data Analysis Error

Census Sample

A census involve A sample is subgroup

complete of the population

enumeration of the selected for

elements of participation in the

Population. study.

Costly Economic

Time Consuming Time saving

Small Industry Large Industry

Large variability Less Variability

Error is high error is Low

Define target

Population

Determine sampling

Frame

Techniques

process

Sampling Techniques

Sampling

Sampling with

without

Replacement

Replacement

Sampling technique

Non- Probabilit

Probability y

Judgem Quot Snowbal

Convenie

ental a l

nce

Samplin Samp samplin

Sampling

g ling g

Cluster

Simple Random Systematic Stratified Sampling

sampling sampling sampling

Proportionat Disproporti

e onate

Parameter

Statistics

Precision Level

Confidence Interval

Confidence Level

Statistical Inference

Sample distribution of mean

Normal distribution

Statistics of sample distribution of mean is

equal to corresponding parameter of

population

Standard error

Standard deviation of population from

sampling distribution

Z-values

The importance of decision

The nature of research

The number of variables

The nature of analysis

Sample size used in similar studies

Incidence rate

Completion rate

Resource constraint

Specify Level of precision

Specify the level of confidence

Determine z value

Determine the standard deviation of the

population

Determine the sample size

Thustone: The sum total of man’s inclination

and feeling, prejudice or bias, preconceived

notion, ideas, fears, threats, and convictions

about any specific topic.

There are three main components of

attitudes:

A cognitive component

An effective Component

A behavioural Component

Attitude Scaling:

Self reporting

Observation

Indirect Techniques

Measurement: It means assigning numbers or

other symbols to characteristics of objects

according to certain pre-specified Rules.

Purpose of measurement:

Numbers permits statistical analysis of resulting data

Numbers facilitate the communication of measurement

rules and results

Important aspects of measurement:

Isomorphic

Standardised

Uniform

Scaling involves creating a continuum upon

which measured objects are located. All the

scales can be described in four basic

Characteristics:

Description

Order

Distance

Origin

Together they define level of measurement.

Level of measurement denotes what

properties of an object the scale is measuring

or not measuring.

Nominal Scale

Ordinal Scale

Interval Scale

Ratio Scale

Scaling

Techniques

Non-

Comparativ Comparative

e Scaling

Contin Scaling Itemise

uous d

Likert Semantic

Stapl

Differenti

Rank Order Constant Q-Sort e

al

Paired sum

Data collection

Secondary

Primary Data

Data

Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at

hand.

Advantages

◦ Help to identify problem

◦ Better define the problem

◦ Develop an approach to the problem

◦ Formulate appropriate research design

◦ Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses.

◦ Interpret primary data more insightfully

Disadvantage

◦ Usefulness, Relevance & Accuracy to current problem will be

limited

◦ The objectives,nature,and the methods used to collect the

secondary data may not be appropriate

◦ Secondary data may be lacking in accuracy,

◦ They may be current and dependable

Sources of Secondary

Data

Internal External

Ready Requires

to Use further

processing

Material Databases Services

Published Materials

Sources sources

Statistical

Guides Directories Indexes

Data

Other

Census Government

Publication

Computerized

Data

Data originated by researcher for specific

purpose of addressing the research problem

Primary data

Qualitative Quantitative

data Data

Qualitative

Research

Procedure

Direct Indirect

(Nondisguised) (Disguised)

Depth Projective

Focus groups

Interviews Techniques

techniques Techniques Techniques Techniques

Quantitative

Data

Descriptive Causal

Survey Methods : A Structured questionnaire

given to a sample of a population a and

designed to elicit specific information from

respondents.

Survey Methods

Interview Interviewing Interviewing interview

Observation

Methods

Audit

Observation observation analysis analysis

A questionnaire, a schedule, interview form,

or measuring instrument, is a formalized set

of questions for obtaining information from

respondents.

Objective:

◦ It must translate the information needed into set of

questions that respondents can and will answer

◦ A questionnaire must uplift, motivate, and

encourage the respondent to become involved in

the interview ,to cooperate, and to complete the

interview.

◦ A questionnaire should minimise response error

Specify the information needed.

Specify the type of interviewing methods

Determine content of individual questions

Design the questions to overcome the

respondent’s inability and unwillingness to

answer

Decide on the question structure

Determine the question wording

Arrange the questions in proper order.

Identify form and layout

Reproduce the questionnaire

Eliminate bugs by pretesting

Editing: Editing is the review of the

questionnaire with the objective of increasing

accuracy and precision.

Objective:

Illegible

Incomplete

Inconsistent

Ambiguous responses

Treatment of Unsatisfactory Responses

Returning to field

Discarding Unsatisfactory responses

Field Editing : The field editing consists of review

of the reporting forms by the investigator for

completing or translating what the latter has

written in abbreviated form at the time of

interviewing the respondent. This form of editing

is necessary in view of the writing of individuals,

which vary from individual to individual and

sometimes difficult for the tabulator to

understand.

Central Editing : Central editing should be carried

out when all the forms of schedules have been

completed and returned to the headquarters.

The assignment of code to represent a specific

question along with data record and column position

that code will occupy.

Types of Codes

Primary code

Final Code

Category

Example

“I prefer to shop from a store that provides a large inventory of

the same product, every brand and every style in that product

range. Usually in these stores you get maximum range of

products you want to purchase. You get profits through deals

and sales.”

The data coder can assign different codes to what the

respondent narrated above. These codes might be as following;

“Preference for horizontal markets”

“Horizontal integration”

“Shopping preference”

Statistical data can be presented in the form of tables and

graphs.

Table involves the orderly and systematic presentation of

numeric data in form of designed to elucidate the problem

under consideration.

The tabulation is used for summarization and

condensation of data.

It aids in analysis of relationships, trends and other

summarization of the given data.

Types of table:

Simple tabulation :results in one-way tables, which can be

used to answer questions related to one characteristic of

the data.

Complex tabulation : usually results in two way tables,

which give information about two interrelated

characteristics of the data.

Characteristics of table:

◦ Every table should have a clear and concise title to make it

understandable without reference to the text. This title should

always be just above the body of the table.

◦ Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy

reference.

◦ Every table should have captions (column headings) and stubs (row

headings)and they should be clear and brief

◦ The units of measurements used must always be indicated.

◦ Source or sources from where the data in the table have been

obtained must be indicated at the bottom of the table.

◦ Explanatory footnotes, if any, concerning the table should be given

beneath the table along with reference symbol.

◦ The columns in the tables may be numbered to facilitate reference.

◦ Abbreviations should be used to the minimum possible extent. The

tables should be logical, clear, accurate and as simple as possible.

◦ The arrangement of the data categories in a table may be a

chronological, geographical, alphabetical or according to

magnitude to facilitate comparison.

◦ Finally, the table must suit the needs and requirements of the

research study.

Statistical Analysis refers to the critical

examination of the assembled and grouped

data for studying the characteristic of the

object under study and for determining the

pattern of relationships among the variables

relating to it.

Objective

Summarising the data

Exact description

Estimation

Inferences

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive Inferential

Univariate

Estimation

Bivariate

Testing Hypothesis

Multivariate

It is a method for analysing data on a single

variable at a time, where we are observing

only one aspect of phenomenon at a time.

With single-variable data, we can put all our

observation into list of number

Answer to statistical problems by collecting

and analysing data on one variable are

known as univariate analysis

Frequency Table

Graphs

Chart

Measure of Central tendency

Measure of location : Measure of one central value

◦ Mean

◦ Median

◦ Mode

Measure of variability: Measure of dispersion of data

◦ Range

◦ Interquartile(75th – 25th)

◦ Standard Deviation

Measure of shape

Skewness

Symmetrical

Skewed Right

Skewed Left

Kurtosis

High

Low

1. Formulate the null Hypothesis H0 is and alternative

hypothesis H1.

2. Select an appropriate statistical technique and the

corresponding test statistic.

3. Choose the level of significance α.

4. Determine the sample size and collect data. Calculate the

value of the test statistic.

5. Determine the probability associated with the test statistic

under the null hypothesis, using the sampling distribution of

the test statistic. Alternatively, determine the critical values

associated with the test statistic that divide the rejection and

nonrejection regions.

6. Compare the probability associated with the test statistic

with level of significance specified . Alternatively, determine

whether the test statistic has fallen into the rejection or non

rejection region.

Factor analysis is a general name denoting a

class of procedure primarily used for data

reduction and summarisation. It is an

interdependent technique in that an entire set

of interdependent relationship examined.

Application

Segmentation

Product Research

Advertising studies

Cluster analysis is class of techniques used to

classify objects or cases into relatively

homogeneous groups called cluster. Objects

in each cluster tend to be similar to each

other and dissimilar to objects in other

clusters. Cluster

A statistical tool to examine how multiple

independent variables are related to

dependent variables. Once how multiple

variables are related to dependent variable,

one can take information about all of the

independent variables and use it to make

much more powerful and accurate predictions

about why things are the way they are. This

latter is referred to as multiple regression.

1.The Correlation Coefficient(R): A single summary number

that tells you whether a relationship exists between two

variables, how strong that relationship is and whether the

relationship is positive or negative.

2. The Coefficient of Determination (R square : A single

summary number that tells you how much variation in one

variable is directly related to variation in another variable.

3. Linear Regression: A process that allows you to make

predictions about variable “Y” based on knowledge you

have about variable “X”.

4. The Standard Error of Estimate: A single summary

number that allows you to tell how accurate your

predictions are likely to be when you perform Linear

Regression.

Multidimensional scaling is a class of procedures

for representing perception and preferences of

respondent spatially by means of visual display.

Multidimensional scaling attempts to find the

structure in a set of distance measures between

objects or cases. This task is accomplished by

assigning observations to specific locations in a

conceptual space (usually two- or three-

dimensional) such that the distances between

points in the space match the given

dissimilarities as closely as possible. In many

cases, the dimensions of this conceptual space

can be interpreted and used to further

understand your data.

Conjoint analysis is a set of market research

techniques that measures the value the market

places on each feature of your product and

predicts the value of any combination of features.

Conjoint analysis is a set of market research

techniques that measures the value the market

places on each feature of your product and

predicts the value of any combination of

features. Conjoint analysis is, at its essence, all

about features and trade-offs.

Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the

collected facts after an analytical and/or experimental study. In

fact, it is a search for broader meaning of research findings. The

task of interpretation has two major aspects viz.,

the effort to establish continuity in research through linking the

results of a given study with those of another, and

the establishment of some explanatory concepts.

“In one sense, interpretation is concerned with relationships

within the collected data, partially overlapping analysis.

Interpretation also extends beyond the data of the study to

include the results of other research, theory and hypotheses.”1

Thus, interpretation is the device through which the factors that

seem to explain what has been observed by researcher in the

course of the study can be better understood and it also provides

a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further

researches.

The technique of interpretation often involves the following steps:

Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relations which he

has found and he must interpret the lines of relationship in terms of the

underlying processes and must try to find out the thread of uniformity

that lies under the surface layer of his diversified research findings.

Extraneous information, if collected during the study, must be

considered while interpreting the final results of research study, for it

may prove to be a key factor in understanding the problem under

consideration.

consult someone having insight into the study and who is frank and

honest and will not hesitate to point out omissions and errors in logical

argumentation. Such a consultation will result in correct interpretation

and, thus, will enhance the utility of research results.

Researcher must accomplish the task of interpretation only after

considering all relevant factors affecting the problem to avoid false

generalization. He must be in no hurry while interpreting results, for

quite often the conclusions, which appear to be all right at the

beginning, may not at all be accurate.

Research report is a condensed form or brief

description of research work done by researcher. It

is written in well described format.

Report format.

Guidelines:

Past tense

Third person

No ambiguity

Story type

Technical report: A technical report is used

whenever a full written report of the study is

required whether for recordkeeping or for public

dissemination. Focus areas are:

The methods employed,

assumptions made in the course of the study,

the detailed presentation of the findings including their

limitations and supporting data.

Popular report: Popular report is used if the

research results have policy implications. Focus

is given on:

Simplicity

Attractiveness

Summary of results: A brief review of the main findings just in two or three pages.

Nature of the study: Description of the general objectives of study, formulation of

the problem in operational terms, the working hypothesis, the type of analysis and

data required, etc.

Methods employed: Specific methods used in the study and their limitations. For

instance, in sampling studies we should give details of sample design viz., sample

size, sample selection, etc.

Data: Discussion of data collected, their sources, characteristics and limitations. If

secondary data are used, their suitability to the problem at hand be fully assessed.

In case of a survey, the manner in which data were collected should be fully

described.

Analysis of data and presentation of findings: The analysis of data and

presentation of the findings of the study with supporting data in the form of

tables and charts be fully narrated. This, in fact, happens to be the main body of

the report usually extending over several chapters.

Conclusions: A detailed summary of the findings and the policy implications

drawn from the results be explained.

Bibliography: Bibliography of various sources consulted be prepared and attached.

Technical appendices: Appendices be given for all technical matters relating to

questionnaire, mathematical derivations, elaboration on particular technique of

analysis and the like ones.

Index: Index must be prepared and be given invariably in the report at the end.

The findings and their implications: Emphasis in the report is given on

the findings of most practical interest and on the implications of these

findings.

Recommendations for action: Recommendations for action on the basis

of the findings of the study is made in this section of the report.

Objective of the study: A general review of how the problem arise is

presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study.

Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of the

methods and techniques used, including a short review of the data on

which the study is based, is given in this part of the report.

Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the

results of the study are presented in clear and non-technical terms with

liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the

like ones.

Technical appendices: More detailed information on methods used,

forms, etc. is presented in the form of appendices. But the appendices

are often not detailed if the report is entirely meant for general public.

Ms. Pooja Tripathi

https://www.scribd.com/document/148527189/Dat

a-Coding-Tabulation

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