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 Concept & Examples

 McDonald
 Dettol
 Life boy
 Importance
 For Marketers
 For Consumers
 For Society
 Objective of Research:
 Reduce Marketing Cost
 Provide Proper Planning
 To find new market and Product
 To determine new policy
 To understand consumer
 To know competition
 Strategic
◦ Segmentation
◦ Targeting
◦ Positioning
◦ Product identification
 Tactical
◦ Pricing
◦ Promotion
◦ Advertising
◦ 4ps
 Marketing Research is the function that links the
consumer, customer, and public to marketer
through information: information used to identify
and define marketing opportunities and problem;
generate, refine, and evaluate marketing action;
monitoring marketing performances; and
improve understanding marketing as a
 The systematic and objective identification,
collection,analysis,dissemination and use of
information for the purpose of assisting
management in decision making related to the
identification and solution of problems and
opportunities in market.(Naresh K Malhotra)
Marketing Research

Problem Identification Research Problem Solving Research

Market potential research

Segmentation research
Market Share Research
Product Research
Image Research
Price Research
Market Characteristic Research
Promotion Research
Sales analysis Research
Distribution Research
Forecasting research
 Marketing information System: A Marketing
information system is a formalised set of procedures for
generating, analysing, storing, and distributing information to
marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis.
 E.g.: Fedral Express – FedEx( Segment management
 Type of data that can be analysed through (MKIS)
 Acquired databases
 Internal company data
 Marketing intelligence
 Marketing research
 Limitation of MKIS
 Rigidly Structured can’t easily manipulated
 Evaluation and control of MR
◦ The individual project
◦ The total research activity within firm
 Methods
◦ Checklist
◦ Flow chart
◦ Gantt Chart
◦ PERT Technique
◦ Advisory Committee
 Problem Identification
 Development Of an approach to Problem
 Research Design Formulation
 Definition of information
 Secondary data
 Qualitative Research
 Quantitative research
 Measurement and scaling Procedures
 Questionnaire Design
 Sampling Process and sampling size
 Plan data Analysis
 Data collection
 Data Preparation & Analysis
 Report Preparation and Presentation
 E.g. Harley-Davison
 Coke's ill-fated decision to change the formula of Coca-
Cola in 1985 is a case in point: Pepsi had been creeping
up on Coke in terms of market share over the years as well
as running a successful promotional campaign called the
"Pepsi Challenge," in which consumers were encouraged to
do a blind taste test to see if they agreed that Pepsi was
better. Coke spent four years researching "the problem."
Indeed, people seemed to like the taste of Pepsi better in
blind taste tests. Thus, the formula for Coke was changed.
But the outcry among the public was so great that the new
formula didn't last long, just a matter of months, before
the old formula was reinstated. Some marketing experts
believe Coke incorrectly defined the problem as "How can
we beat Pepsi in taste tests?" instead of "How can we gain
market share against Pepsi?"
 Need all the information required by decision
 Guide researcher to proceed with project
 Researchers are mistaken in:
 Defining problem too broadly
 Defining problem too narrowly
Total Error

Response error Non-Response error

Researcher errors Interviewer error

Surrogate Information
Respondent Selection Error
Questioning Error
Population definition Error Inability Error
Recording Error
Sampling Frame Error Unwillingness Error
Cheating Error
Data Analysis Error
 Census  Sample
 A census involve  A sample is subgroup
complete of the population
enumeration of the selected for
elements of participation in the
Population. study.
 Costly  Economic
 Time Consuming  Time saving
 Small Industry  Large Industry
 Large variability  Less Variability
 Error is high  error is Low
Define target

Determine sampling

Select the sampling


Determine sample Size

Execute the sampling

Sampling Techniques

Bayesian Approach Traditional Sampling

Sampling with
Sampling technique

Non- Probabilit
Probability y
Judgem Quot Snowbal
ental a l
Samplin Samp samplin
g ling g

Simple Random Systematic Stratified Sampling
sampling sampling sampling

Proportionat Disproporti
e onate
 Parameter
 Statistics
 Precision Level
 Confidence Interval
 Confidence Level
 Statistical Inference
 Sample distribution of mean
 Normal distribution
 Statistics of sample distribution of mean is
equal to corresponding parameter of
 Standard error
 Standard deviation of population from
sampling distribution
 Z-values
 The importance of decision
 The nature of research
 The number of variables
 The nature of analysis
 Sample size used in similar studies
 Incidence rate
 Completion rate
 Resource constraint
 Specify Level of precision
 Specify the level of confidence
 Determine z value
 Determine the standard deviation of the
 Determine the sample size
 Thustone: The sum total of man’s inclination
and feeling, prejudice or bias, preconceived
notion, ideas, fears, threats, and convictions
about any specific topic.
 There are three main components of
 A cognitive component
 An effective Component
 A behavioural Component
 Attitude Scaling:
 Self reporting
 Observation
 Indirect Techniques
 Measurement: It means assigning numbers or
other symbols to characteristics of objects
according to certain pre-specified Rules.
 Purpose of measurement:
 Numbers permits statistical analysis of resulting data
 Numbers facilitate the communication of measurement
rules and results
 Important aspects of measurement:
 Isomorphic
 Standardised
 Uniform
 Scaling involves creating a continuum upon
which measured objects are located. All the
scales can be described in four basic
 Description
 Order
 Distance
 Origin
 Together they define level of measurement.
Level of measurement denotes what
properties of an object the scale is measuring
or not measuring.
 Nominal Scale
 Ordinal Scale
 Interval Scale
 Ratio Scale
Comparativ Comparative
e Scaling
Contin Scaling Itemise
uous d

Likert Semantic
Rank Order Constant Q-Sort e
Paired sum
Data collection

Primary Data

Survey Observation Experiment

 Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at
 Advantages
◦ Help to identify problem
◦ Better define the problem
◦ Develop an approach to the problem
◦ Formulate appropriate research design
◦ Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses.
◦ Interpret primary data more insightfully
 Disadvantage
◦ Usefulness, Relevance & Accuracy to current problem will be
◦ The objectives,nature,and the methods used to collect the
secondary data may not be appropriate
◦ Secondary data may be lacking in accuracy,
◦ They may be current and dependable
Sources of Secondary

Internal External

Ready Requires
to Use further

Published Computerised Syndicated

Material Databases Services
Published Materials

General Business Government

Sources sources

Guides Directories Indexes

Census Government

Online Internet offline

 Data originated by researcher for specific
purpose of addressing the research problem

Primary data

Qualitative Quantitative
data Data

Direct Indirect
(Nondisguised) (Disguised)

Depth Projective
Focus groups
Interviews Techniques

Association Completion Construction Expressive

techniques Techniques Techniques Techniques

Descriptive Causal

Survey Observational Experimental

 Survey Methods : A Structured questionnaire
given to a sample of a population a and
designed to elicit specific information from

Survey Methods

Telephonic Personal Mail Electronic

Interview Interviewing Interviewing interview

Personal Mechanical Trace Content

Observation observation analysis analysis
 A questionnaire, a schedule, interview form,
or measuring instrument, is a formalized set
of questions for obtaining information from
 Objective:
◦ It must translate the information needed into set of
questions that respondents can and will answer
◦ A questionnaire must uplift, motivate, and
encourage the respondent to become involved in
the interview ,to cooperate, and to complete the
◦ A questionnaire should minimise response error
 Specify the information needed.
 Specify the type of interviewing methods
 Determine content of individual questions
 Design the questions to overcome the
respondent’s inability and unwillingness to
 Decide on the question structure
 Determine the question wording
 Arrange the questions in proper order.
 Identify form and layout
 Reproduce the questionnaire
 Eliminate bugs by pretesting
 Editing: Editing is the review of the
questionnaire with the objective of increasing
accuracy and precision.
 Objective:
 Illegible
 Incomplete
 Inconsistent
 Ambiguous responses
 Treatment of Unsatisfactory Responses
 Returning to field
 Discarding Unsatisfactory responses
 Field Editing : The field editing consists of review
of the reporting forms by the investigator for
completing or translating what the latter has
written in abbreviated form at the time of
interviewing the respondent. This form of editing
is necessary in view of the writing of individuals,
which vary from individual to individual and
sometimes difficult for the tabulator to
 Central Editing : Central editing should be carried
out when all the forms of schedules have been
completed and returned to the headquarters.
 The assignment of code to represent a specific
question along with data record and column position
that code will occupy.
 Types of Codes
 Primary code
 Final Code
 Category
 Example
 “I prefer to shop from a store that provides a large inventory of
the same product, every brand and every style in that product
range. Usually in these stores you get maximum range of
products you want to purchase. You get profits through deals
and sales.”
 The data coder can assign different codes to what the
respondent narrated above. These codes might be as following;
 “Preference for horizontal markets”
 “Horizontal integration”
 “Shopping preference”
 Statistical data can be presented in the form of tables and
 Table involves the orderly and systematic presentation of
numeric data in form of designed to elucidate the problem
under consideration.
 The tabulation is used for summarization and
condensation of data.
 It aids in analysis of relationships, trends and other
summarization of the given data.
 Types of table:
 Simple tabulation :results in one-way tables, which can be
used to answer questions related to one characteristic of
the data.
 Complex tabulation : usually results in two way tables,
which give information about two interrelated
characteristics of the data.
 Characteristics of table:
◦ Every table should have a clear and concise title to make it
understandable without reference to the text. This title should
always be just above the body of the table.
◦ Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy
◦ Every table should have captions (column headings) and stubs (row
headings)and they should be clear and brief
◦ The units of measurements used must always be indicated.
◦ Source or sources from where the data in the table have been
obtained must be indicated at the bottom of the table.
◦ Explanatory footnotes, if any, concerning the table should be given
beneath the table along with reference symbol.
◦ The columns in the tables may be numbered to facilitate reference.
◦ Abbreviations should be used to the minimum possible extent. The
tables should be logical, clear, accurate and as simple as possible.
◦ The arrangement of the data categories in a table may be a
chronological, geographical, alphabetical or according to
magnitude to facilitate comparison.
◦ Finally, the table must suit the needs and requirements of the
research study.
 Statistical Analysis refers to the critical
examination of the assembled and grouped
data for studying the characteristic of the
object under study and for determining the
pattern of relationships among the variables
relating to it.
 Objective
 Summarising the data
 Exact description
 Estimation
 Inferences
Statistical Analysis

Descriptive Inferential

Testing Hypothesis
 It is a method for analysing data on a single
variable at a time, where we are observing
only one aspect of phenomenon at a time.
 With single-variable data, we can put all our
observation into list of number
 Answer to statistical problems by collecting
and analysing data on one variable are
known as univariate analysis
 Frequency Table
 Graphs
 Chart
 Measure of Central tendency
 Measure of location : Measure of one central value
◦ Mean
◦ Median
◦ Mode
 Measure of variability: Measure of dispersion of data
◦ Range
◦ Interquartile(75th – 25th)
◦ Standard Deviation
 Measure of shape
 Skewness
 Symmetrical
 Skewed Right
 Skewed Left
 Kurtosis
 High
 Low
1. Formulate the null Hypothesis H0 is and alternative
hypothesis H1.
2. Select an appropriate statistical technique and the
corresponding test statistic.
3. Choose the level of significance α.
4. Determine the sample size and collect data. Calculate the
value of the test statistic.
5. Determine the probability associated with the test statistic
under the null hypothesis, using the sampling distribution of
the test statistic. Alternatively, determine the critical values
associated with the test statistic that divide the rejection and
nonrejection regions.
6. Compare the probability associated with the test statistic
with level of significance specified . Alternatively, determine
whether the test statistic has fallen into the rejection or non
rejection region.
 Factor analysis is a general name denoting a
class of procedure primarily used for data
reduction and summarisation. It is an
interdependent technique in that an entire set
of interdependent relationship examined.
 Application
 Segmentation
 Product Research
 Advertising studies
 Cluster analysis is class of techniques used to
classify objects or cases into relatively
homogeneous groups called cluster. Objects
in each cluster tend to be similar to each
other and dissimilar to objects in other
clusters. Cluster
 A statistical tool to examine how multiple
independent variables are related to
dependent variables. Once how multiple
variables are related to dependent variable,
one can take information about all of the
independent variables and use it to make
much more powerful and accurate predictions
about why things are the way they are. This
latter is referred to as multiple regression.
 1.The Correlation Coefficient(R): A single summary number
that tells you whether a relationship exists between two
variables, how strong that relationship is and whether the
relationship is positive or negative.
 2. The Coefficient of Determination (R square : A single
summary number that tells you how much variation in one
variable is directly related to variation in another variable.
 3. Linear Regression: A process that allows you to make
predictions about variable “Y” based on knowledge you
have about variable “X”.
 4. The Standard Error of Estimate: A single summary
number that allows you to tell how accurate your
predictions are likely to be when you perform Linear
 Multidimensional scaling is a class of procedures
for representing perception and preferences of
respondent spatially by means of visual display.
 Multidimensional scaling attempts to find the
structure in a set of distance measures between
objects or cases. This task is accomplished by
assigning observations to specific locations in a
conceptual space (usually two- or three-
dimensional) such that the distances between
points in the space match the given
dissimilarities as closely as possible. In many
cases, the dimensions of this conceptual space
can be interpreted and used to further
understand your data.
 Conjoint analysis is a set of market research
techniques that measures the value the market
places on each feature of your product and
predicts the value of any combination of features.
 Conjoint analysis is a set of market research
techniques that measures the value the market
places on each feature of your product and
predicts the value of any combination of
features. Conjoint analysis is, at its essence, all
about features and trade-offs.
 Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the
collected facts after an analytical and/or experimental study. In
fact, it is a search for broader meaning of research findings. The
task of interpretation has two major aspects viz.,
 the effort to establish continuity in research through linking the
results of a given study with those of another, and
 the establishment of some explanatory concepts.
 “In one sense, interpretation is concerned with relationships
within the collected data, partially overlapping analysis.
Interpretation also extends beyond the data of the study to
include the results of other research, theory and hypotheses.”1
Thus, interpretation is the device through which the factors that
seem to explain what has been observed by researcher in the
course of the study can be better understood and it also provides
a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further
 The technique of interpretation often involves the following steps:
 Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relations which he
has found and he must interpret the lines of relationship in terms of the
underlying processes and must try to find out the thread of uniformity
that lies under the surface layer of his diversified research findings.
 Extraneous information, if collected during the study, must be
considered while interpreting the final results of research study, for it
may prove to be a key factor in understanding the problem under
 consult someone having insight into the study and who is frank and
honest and will not hesitate to point out omissions and errors in logical
argumentation. Such a consultation will result in correct interpretation
and, thus, will enhance the utility of research results.
 Researcher must accomplish the task of interpretation only after
considering all relevant factors affecting the problem to avoid false
generalization. He must be in no hurry while interpreting results, for
quite often the conclusions, which appear to be all right at the
beginning, may not at all be accurate.
 Research report is a condensed form or brief
description of research work done by researcher. It
is written in well described format.

 Report format.

 Guidelines:
 Past tense
 Third person
 No ambiguity
 Story type
 Technical report: A technical report is used
whenever a full written report of the study is
required whether for recordkeeping or for public
dissemination. Focus areas are:
 The methods employed,
 assumptions made in the course of the study,
 the detailed presentation of the findings including their
limitations and supporting data.
 Popular report: Popular report is used if the
research results have policy implications. Focus
is given on:
 Simplicity
 Attractiveness
 Summary of results: A brief review of the main findings just in two or three pages.
 Nature of the study: Description of the general objectives of study, formulation of
the problem in operational terms, the working hypothesis, the type of analysis and
data required, etc.
 Methods employed: Specific methods used in the study and their limitations. For
instance, in sampling studies we should give details of sample design viz., sample
size, sample selection, etc.
 Data: Discussion of data collected, their sources, characteristics and limitations. If
secondary data are used, their suitability to the problem at hand be fully assessed.
In case of a survey, the manner in which data were collected should be fully
 Analysis of data and presentation of findings: The analysis of data and
presentation of the findings of the study with supporting data in the form of
tables and charts be fully narrated. This, in fact, happens to be the main body of
the report usually extending over several chapters.
 Conclusions: A detailed summary of the findings and the policy implications
drawn from the results be explained.
 Bibliography: Bibliography of various sources consulted be prepared and attached.
 Technical appendices: Appendices be given for all technical matters relating to
questionnaire, mathematical derivations, elaboration on particular technique of
analysis and the like ones.
 Index: Index must be prepared and be given invariably in the report at the end.
 The findings and their implications: Emphasis in the report is given on
the findings of most practical interest and on the implications of these
 Recommendations for action: Recommendations for action on the basis
of the findings of the study is made in this section of the report.
 Objective of the study: A general review of how the problem arise is
presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study.
 Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of the
methods and techniques used, including a short review of the data on
which the study is based, is given in this part of the report.
 Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the
results of the study are presented in clear and non-technical terms with
liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the
like ones.
 Technical appendices: More detailed information on methods used,
forms, etc. is presented in the form of appendices. But the appendices
are often not detailed if the report is entirely meant for general public.
Ms. Pooja Tripathi