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Data and Computer

Chapter 2 – Protocol Architecture,
TCP/IP, and Internet-Based

We use the concept of layers in our daily life. As an

example, let us consider two friends who communicate
through postal mail. The process of sending a letter to a
friend would be complex if there were no services
available from the post office.

Figure 2.1 Tasks involved in sending a letter


Transport Transport

Network access
Network access

Simplified Network
Established in 1947, the International Standards
Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to
worldwide agreement on international standards. An ISO
standard that covers all aspects of network
communications is the Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.

Figure 2.2 Seven layers of the OSI model

Figure 2.4 An exchange using the OSI model

Figure 2.5 Physical layer

The physical layer is responsible for movements of

individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

Figure 2.6 Data link layer

The data link layer is responsible for moving

frames from one hop (node) to the next.

Figure 2.8 Network layer

The network layer is responsible for the

delivery of individual packets from
the source host to the destination host.

Figure 2.10 Transport layer

The transport layer is responsible for the delivery

of a message from one process to another.

Figure 2.12 Session layer

The session layer is responsible for dialog

control and synchronization.

Figure 2.13 Presentation layer

The presentation layer is responsible for translation,

compression, and encryption.

Figure 2.14 Application layer
The application layer is responsible for
providing services to the user.

Figure 2.15 Summary of layers

TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
 developed by US Defense Advanced
Research Project Agency (DARPA)
 for ARPANET packet switched network
 used by the global Internet
 protocol suite comprises a large collection
of standardized protocols
TCP/IP Layers
 no official model but a working one
 Application layer
 Host-to-host, or transport layer
 Network access layer
 Physical layer
Figure 2.16 TCP/IP and OSI model

Physical Layer
 concerned with physical interface between
computer and network
 concerned with issues like:
 characteristics of transmission medium
 signal levels
 data rates
 other related matters
Network Access & internet
 exchange of data between an end system
and attached network
 concerned with issues like :
 destination address provision
 invoking specific services like priority
 access to & routing data across a network link
between two attached systems
 allows layers above to ignore link specifics
Network Access & internet
 routing functions across multiple networks
 for systems attached to different networks
 using IP protocol
 implemented in end systems and routers
 routers connect two networks and relays
data between them
Transport Layer (TCP)
 common layer shared by all applications
 provides reliable delivery of data
 in same order as sent
 commonly uses TCP
Application Layer
 provide support for user applications
 need a separate module for each type of
TCP/IP Applications
 have a number of standard TCP/IP
applications such as
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Telnet
TCP/IP Applications
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – FTP is a
reliable, connection-oriented service that
uses TCP to transfer files between systems
that support FTP. It supports bi-directional
binary file and ASCII file transfers.
 Domain Name System (DNS) – DNS is a
system used on the Internet for translating
names of domains and their publicly
advertised network nodes into IP addresses.
TCP/IP Applications
 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) –
TFTP is a connectionless service that
uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
TFTP is used on the router to transfer
configuration files and Cisco IOS images,
and to transfer files between systems that
support TFTP. It is useful in some LANs
because it operates faster than FTP in a
stable environment.
TCP/IP Applications
 Network File System (NFS) – NFS is a
distributed file system protocol suite
developed by Sun Microsystems that allows
file access to a remote storage device such
as a hard disk across a network.
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) –
SMTP administers the transmission of e-mail
over computer networks. It does not provide
support for transmission of data other than
TCP/IP Applications
 Terminal emulation (Telnet) – Telnet provides
the capability to remotely access another
computer. It enables a user to log in to an
Internet host and execute commands. A Telnet
client is referred to as a local host. A Telnet
server is referred to as a remote host.
 Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) – SNMP is a protocol that provides a
way to monitor and control network devices, and
to manage configurations, statistics collection,
performance, and security.
Comparing the OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

Similarities of the OSI and TCP/IP Models

 Both have layers.

 Both have application layers, though they
include very different services.
 Both have comparable transport and
network layers.
 Packet-switched, not circuit-switched,
technology is assumed.
 Networking professionals need to know
both models.
Differences of the OSI and TCP/IP Models

 TCP/IP combines the presentation and

session layer into its application layer.
 TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and
physical layers into one layer.
 TCP/IP appears simpler because it has
fewer layers.
 TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not
always guarantee reliable delivery of
packets as the transport layer in the OSI
model does.