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Process Selection

and Facility

Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
 You should be able to:
1. Explain the strategic importance of process selection
2. Describe the influence that process selection has on the
3. Compare the basic processing types
4. Explain the need for management of technology
5. List some reasons for redesign of layouts
6. Describe the basic layout types, and the main advantages and
disadvantages of each
7. Solve simple line-balancing problems
8. Develop simple process layouts

Instructor Slides 6-2

 Process selection
 Refers to deciding on the way production of goods or
services will be organized
 It has major implications for
 Capacity planning
 Layout of facilities
 Equipment
 Design of work systems

Instructor Slides 6-3

Facilities and
Forecasting Capacity Equipment

Product and Layout

Service Design

Technological Selection Work
Change Design

Instructor Slides 6-4

 Key Aspects of Process Strategy:
 Capital Intensity
 The mix of equipment and labor that will be used by the
 Process flexibility
 The degree to which the system can be adjusted to changes in
processing requirements due to such factors as
 Product and service design changes
 Volume changes
 Changes in technology

Instructor Slides 6-5

Process choice is demand driven:
1. Variety
 How much?
Job Shop
2. Equipment flexibility
 To what degree?
3. Volume
 Expected output?
Repetitive Continuous

Instructor Slides 6-6

Job Shop Batch Assembly Continuous
Description Customized Semi- Standardized Highly standardized
goods or standardized goods or Goods or services
services goods or services
Advantages Able to handle a Flexibility; easy Low unit Very efficient, very
wide variety to add or change cost, high volume, high volume
of work products or efficient
Disadvantages Slow, high cost Moderate cost Low flexibility, Very rigid, lack of
per unit, per unit, high cost of variety, costly to
complex moderate downtime change, very high
planning and scheduling cost of downtime
scheduling complexity

Instructor Slides 6-7

Instructor Slides 6-8
Function Job Shop Batch Repetitive Continuous Projects
Cost estimation Difficult Somewhat routine Routine Routine Simple to
Cost per unit High Moderate Low Low Very high

Equipment used General purpose General purpose Special purpose Special purpose Varied

Fixed costs Low Moderate High Very high Varied

Variable costs High Moderate Low Very low High

Labor skills High Moderate Low Low to high Low to high

Marketing Promote Promote Promote Promote Promote

capabilities capabilities; semi- standardized standardized capabilities
standardized goods/services goods/services
goods and
Scheduling Complex Moderately complex Routine Routine Complex, subject
to change
Work –in-process High High Low Low Varied

Instructor Slides 6-9

 Process selection involves
 Substantial investment in equipment
 Has a very specific influence on layout
 Product or service profiling
 Linking key product or service requirements to process capabilities
 Key dimensions relate to
 Range of products or services that will be processed
 Expected order sizes
 Pricing strategies
 Expected frequency of schedule changes
 Order-winning requirements

Instructor Slides 6-10

 There is increasing pressure for organizations to
operate sustainable production processes
 According to the Lowell Center for Sustainable
 “Sustainable Production is the creation of goods and
services using processes and systems that are: non-
polluting; conserving of energy and natural resources;
economically efficient; safe and healthful for workers,
communities, and consumers; and, socially and
creatively rewarding for all working people.”

Instructor Slides 6-11

 Technological Innovation
 The discovery and development of new or improved
products, services, or processes for producing or
providing them
 Technology
 The application of scientific discoveries to the
development and improvement of products and
services and/or the processes that produce or provide

Instructor Slides 6-12

 Automation
 Machinery that has sensing and control devices that
enable it to operate automatically
 Fixed automation
 Programmable automation
 Flexible automation

Instructor Slides 6-13

1. What level of automation is appropriate?
2. How would automation affect system flexibility?
3. How can automation projects be justified?
4. How should changes be managed?
5. What are the risks of automating?
6. What are the likely effects of automating on:
 Market share
 Costs
 Quality
 Customer satisfaction
 Labor relations
 Ongoing operations

Instructor Slides 6-14

 Programmable Automation
 Involves the use of high-cost, general-purpose equipment
controlled by a computer program that provides both the
sequence of operations and specific details about each
 Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
 The use of computers in process control, ranging from robots to automated quality
 Numerically Controlled (N/C) Machines
 Machines that perform operations by following mathematical processing
 Robot
 A machine consisting of a mechanical arm, a power supply, and a controller

Instructor Slides 6-15

 Flexible automation
 evolved from programmable automation. It uses equipment
that is more customized than that of programmable
automation. A key difference between the two is that flexible
automation requires significantly less changeover time.
 FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System)
 A group of machines designed to handle intermittent processing requirements and
produce a variety of similar products

 CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

 A system for linking a broad range of manufacturing activities through an
integrated computer system

Instructor Slides 6-16

 A group of machines designed to handle intermittent
processing requirements and produce a variety of similar
 Have some of the benefits of automation and some of the
flexibility of individual, or stand-alone, machines
 Includes supervisory computer control, automatic material
handling, and robots or other automated processing

Instructor Slides 6-17

 A system for linking a broad range of manufacturing
activities through an integrated computer system
 Activities include
 Engineering design
 Purchasing
 Order processing
 Production planning and control
 The overall goal of CIM is to link various parts of an
organization to achieve rapid response to customer
orders and/or product changes, to allow rapid production
and to reduce indirect labor costs

Instructor Slides 6-18

 Layout
 the configuration of departments, work centers, and
equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of
work (customers or materials) through the system
 Facilities layout decisions arise when:
 Designing new facilities
 Re-designing existing facilities

Instructor Slides 6-19

1. Inefficient operations
High cost
2. Accidents or safety hazards
3. Changes in product or service design
4. Introduction of new products or services
5. Changes in output volume or product mix
6. Changes in methods or equipment
7. Changes in environmental or other legal
8. Morale problems
Instructor Slides 6-20
 Basic Objective
 Facilitate a smooth flow of work, material, and information through the
 Supporting objectives
1. Facilitate product or service quality
2. Use workers and space efficiently
3. Avoid bottlenecks
4. Minimize material handling costs
5. Eliminate unnecessary movement of workers or material
6. Minimize production time or customer service time
7. Design for safety

Instructor Slides 6-21

 Product layouts

 Process layouts

 Fixed-Position layout

 Combination layouts

Instructor Slides 6-22

 Product layout
 Layout that uses standardized processing operations to
achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow

Raw materials
Station Station Station Station Finished
or customer item
1 2 3 4

Material Material Material Material

and/or and/or and/or and/or
labor labor labor labor

Used for Repetitive Processing

Repetitive or Continuous
Instructor Slides 6-23
Advantages Disadvantages
 High rate of output  Creates dull, repetitive jobs
 Low unit cost  Poorly skilled workers may not
 Labor specialization maintain equipment or quality of
 Low material handling cost per unit
 Fairly inflexible to changes in
 High utilization of labor and
volume or product or process
 Established routing and scheduling
 Highly susceptible to shutdowns
 Routine accounting, purchasing,
 Preventive maintenance, capacity
and inventory control
for quick repair and spare-parts
inventories are necessary expenses
 Individual incentive plans are
Instructor Slides 6-24
 Process layouts
 Layouts that can handle varied processing requirements

Dept. A Dept. C Dept. E

Dept. B Dept. D Dept. F

Used for Intermittent processing

Instructor Slides
Job Shop or Batch 6-25
Advantages Disadvantages
 Can handle a variety of processing  In-process inventories can be high
requirements  Routing and scheduling pose
 Not particularly vulnerable to continual challenges
equipment failures  Equipment utilization rates are
 General-purpose equipment is low
often less costly and easier and  Material handling is slow and
less costly to maintain inefficient
 It is possible to use individual  Reduced spans of supervision
incentive systems
 Special attention necessary for
each product or customer
 Accounting, inventory control,
and purchasing are more involved

Instructor Slides 6-26

 Fixed Position layout
 Layout in which the product or project remains
stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are
moved as needed

Instructor Slides 6-27

 Some operational environments use a combination of the
three basic layout types:
 Hospitals
 Supermarket
 Shipyards
 Some organizations are moving away from process layouts
in an effort to capture the benefits of product layouts
 Cellular manufacturing
 Flexible manufacturing systems

Instructor Slides 6-28

 Service layouts can be categorized as: product,
process, or fixed position
 Service layout requirements are somewhat different
due to such factors as:
 Degree of customer contact
 Degree of customization
 Common service layouts:
 Warehouse and storage layouts
 Retail layouts
 Office layouts

Instructor Slides 6-29

 Cellular production
 Layout in which workstations are grouped into a cell
that can process items that have similar processing
 Groupings are determined by the operations needed to
perform the work for a set of similar items, part families, that
require similar processing
 The cells become, in effect, miniature versions of product

Instructor Slides 6-30

 Group technology
 The grouping into part families of items with similar
design or manufacturing characteristics
 Design Characteristics:
 Size
 Shape
 Function
 Manufacturing or processing characteristics
 Type of operations required
 Sequence of operations required
 Requires a systematic analysis of parts to identify the
part families

Instructor Slides 6-31

 Two key factors:
 Customer contact
 Degree of customization
 Layouts:
 Warehouse and storage layouts
 Retail layouts
 Office layouts

Instructor Slides 6-32

 Line balancing
 The process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a
way that the workstations have approximately equal
time requirements
 Goal:
 Obtain task grouping that represent approximately equal
time requirements since this minimizes idle time along the
line and results in a high utilization of equipment and labor
 Why is line balancing important?
1. It allows us to use labor and equipment more efficiently.
2. To avoid fairness issues that arise when one workstation must
work harder than another.

Instructor Slides 6-33

 Cycle time
 The maximum time allowed at each workstation to
complete its set of tasks on a unit
 Cycle time also establishes the output rate of a line

Operating time per day

Cycle time 
Desired output rate

Operating time per day

Output rate 
Cycle time

Instructor Slides 6-34

 The required number of workstations is a
function of
 Desired output rate
 Our ability to combine tasks into a workstation
 Theoretical minimum number of stations

N min 
Cycle time
N min  theoretica l minimum number of stations
 t  Sum of task time s
Instructor Slides 6-35
 Precedence diagram
 A diagram that shows elemental tasks and their precedence

Instructor Slides 6-36

 Some Heuristic (Intuitive) Rules:
 Assign tasks in order of most following tasks
 Count the number of tasks that follow

 Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight.

 Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of
all following tasks.

Instructor Slides 6-37

 Balance delay (percentage of idle time)
 Percentage of idle time of a line

Idle time per cycle

Balance Delay  100
N actual  Cycle time
actual Actual number of stations
 Efficiency
 Percentage of busy time of a line

Efficiency  100% - Balance Delay

Instructor Slides 6-38

 The main issue in designing process layouts concerns
the relative placement of the departments
 Measuring effectiveness
 A major objective in designing process layouts is to
minimize transportation cost, distance, or time

Instructor Slides 6-39

 In designing process layouts, the following
information is required:
1. A list of departments to be arranged and their dimensions
2. A projection of future work flows between the pairs of work
3. The distance between locations and the cost per unit of distance
to move loads between them
4. The amount of money to be invested in the layout
5. A list of any special considerations
6. The location of key utilities, access and exit points, etc.

Instructor Slides 6-40