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Melt-crystal equilibrium 1

 Magma at composition
X (30% Ca, 70% Na) X
cools  first crystal
bytownite (73% Ca,
27% Na)
 This shifts the Y
composition of the
remaining melt such that
it is more Na-rich (Y)
Z
 What would be the next
crystal to precipitate?
 Finally, the last bit
would crystallize from Z
Melt-crystal equilibrium 2 - miscibility
 2 component mixing
and separation  anorthoclase
monalbite

chicken soup analogy, 1100


cools and separates

Temperature (ºC)
high albite
sanidine
 Fat and liquid can 900
intermediate albite
crystallize separately if
cooled slowly 700
orthoclase
 Miscibility Gap – no
microcline low albite
single mineral is stable 500
in a composition range Miscibility Gap
for x temperature 300
10 30 50 70 90
Orthoclase Albite
% NaAlSi3O8
KAlSi3O8 NaAlSi3O8
Ternary Diagrams
 Describe
variations of 3 A20B50C30
components in Y

crystal group(s)
 X=A50B30C20
Z
 Y=A10B10C80
X
 Z=A30B30C40
Combining phase and composition
diagrams for mineral groups
Mica ternary
Muscovite
KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

No micas
Miscibility Gap

Biotite series
Annite Phlogopite
KFe3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Feldspar Group
 Most abundant mineral in
the crust  6 of 7 most
common elements
 Defined through 3 end-
members 
 Albite (Na), Anorthite (Ca),
Orthoclase (K)
 Comprised of 2 series:
 Albite-anorthite (Na-Ca)
 Albite-orthoclase (Na-K)
Tectosilicates
Feldspars
Substitute Al3+
for Si4+ allows
Na+ or K+ to be
added
Albite-Orthoclase

Substitute two
Al3+ for Si4+
allows Ca2+ to be
added
Albite-Anorthite
Albite: NaAlSi3O8
Feldspar Group – Albite-Anorthite series
 Complete solid solution  Plagioclase Feldspars
 6 minerals
 Albite (Na)

 Oligoclase

 Andesine

 Labradorite

 Bytownite

 Anorthite (Ca)

 Albite-Anorthite double duty


 End-members (Pure Na or Ca)
 Minerals 90-99.99% Na or Ca
 Notation:
 AnxAby  An20Ab80=Oligoclase
Feldspar Group – Albite-Anorthite series
 Optical techniques to
distinguish between
plagioclase feldspars:
 Michel-Levy Method – uses
extinction angles of
twinned forms to determine
An-Ab content
 Combined Carlsbad-Albite

Method  uses Michel-


Levy technique for both
sides of a twin form
 Michel-Levy
chart for K-
feldspar
optical ID
Staining technique
 Stains that attach
to K really well
(Like Co(NO3)2 )
will higlight the K-
feldspars quickly
and easily in hand
specimen or thin
section
Tectosilicates
Feldspars
Substitute Al3+
for Si4+ allows
Na+ or K+ to be
added
Albite-Orthoclase

Substitute two
Al3+ for Si4+
allows Ca2+ to be
added
Albite-Anorthite
Albite: NaAlSi3O8
Feldspar Group – Albite-Orthoclase series
 Several minerals – Alkali Feldspars
 High – T minerals
 Sanidine monalbite
anorthoclase
 Anorthoclase 1100

Temperature (ºC)
high albite
 Monalbite
sanidine
 High Albite 900
intermediate albite

 Low Temperature 700


orthoclase
exsolution at solvus
 Chicken soup microcline low albite
500
separation Miscibility Gap
 Forms 2 minerals, in igneous 300
rocks these are typically 10 30 50 70 90
intergrowths, or exsolution Orthoclase Albite
% NaAlSi3O8
lamellae – perthitic texture KAlSi3O8 NaAlSi3O8
Alkali Feldspar Exsolution
 Melt cools past solvus Liquid
(line defining 1100
monalbite
miscibility gap) anorthoclase
 Anorthoclase, that had
900

Temperature (ºC)
formed (through high albite

liquidus/solidus) sanidine
intermediate albite
separates (if cooling is
slow enough) to form 700
orthoclase
orthoclase and low
albite 500
microcline low albite

 In hand sample – Miscibility Gap


schiller effect  play 300
of colors caused by 10 30 50 70 90

lamellae Orthoclase Albite


% NaAlSi3O8
KAlSi3O8 NaAlSi3O8
Alkali Feldspar lamellae
Feldspathoid Group
 Very similar to
feldspars and zeolites
 Include Nepheline,
Analcime, and Leucite
 Also framework
silicates, but with
another Al substitution
for Si
 Only occur in
undersaturated rocks
(no free Quartz, Si-
poor) because they
react with SiO2 to form
feldspars
Feldspathoids, Cont.
 Nepheline
 Important
feldspathoid
mineral
 Indicates
undersaturated
magma