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DIS 3023

COMPARATIVE DEFENCE AND FOREIGN


POLICY

GROUP 6
1) MUHAMMAD ZULSYAFIQ BIN ZULKIFLI (2160618)
2) YOGAHRAJ A/L RENGANATHAN (2160622)
3) PKDT MUHAMAD SYAHRULL HAZIZI BIN NORIZAN
(2160451)
QUESTION

MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE HAVE INCORPORATED THE


CONCEPTS OF HANRUH AND TOTAL DEFENCE IN THEIR
RESPECTIVE DEFENCE POLICIES. COMPARE AND CONTRAST
THE ROLE, OBJECTIVE AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE
STRATEGIES IN THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY OF MALAYSIA
AND SINGAPORE.
OUTLINE

 INTRODUCTION

 COMPARE AND CONTRAST


 ROLE

 OBJECTIVE

 IMPLEMENTATION

 CONCLUSION
The Relations between Total Defence and Defence Policy

 Malaysia
 The primary objective of the National Defence Policy is to protect and defend
national interests which form the foundations of Malaysia’s sovereignty,
territorial integrity and economic prosperity. To achieve this objective a
requirement for a comprehensive strategy has been formulated as the underlying
principles for national defence. The importance principle of this strategy is Self
Reliance, the prerequisite for achieve these strategy through “Hanruh”.
 Singapore
 Singapore's defence policy is fundamentally based on the twin pillars of
deterrence and diplomacy. The first pillar of deterrence is provided by developing
a strong and capable SAF and a resilient Singapore, through the institutions of
National Service and Total Defence, as well as by taking a prudent and stable
approach to defence spending.
PERTAHANAN MENYELURUH
(HANRUH)

Total and integrated defence involves many government agencies,


WHAT ? the private sector, NGOs and the citizenry in all circumstances in
order to protect the sovereignty of the nation.

WHEN ? These concept was first introduced in the year 1986

1) Responsibility for defending the country, is not just the responsibility of


WHY ? MAF, but it is the responsibility of all levels of society in Malaysia.
2) National defence should based on confidence in its own strengths and not
only depend on the assistance of foreign countries.
3) To foster patriotic spirit in all the fellow Malaysian
TOTAL DEFENCE (SINGAPORE)

Total Defence involves every Singaporean playing a part,


individually and collectively, to build a strong, secure and
 WHAT ?
cohesive nation. When we are strong, we are able to deal with
any crisis.

• WHEN ? Total Defence of Singapore was introduced by the government in


1984

Total Defence has rallied Singaporeans together in responding to


challenges that threaten Singapore's independence and well-
• WHY ? being, such as terrorism, SARS and economic downturns. The
core message is that every Singaporean has a part to play to help
strengthen the defences against these threats and challenges.
PILLARS OF TOTAL DEFENCE/
HANRUH

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 Psychology Resilience  Psychological Defence
 Social Coherent and Solidarity  Social Defence
 Civil Preparedness  Economic Defence
 Economic Resilience  Civil Defence
 Security Readiness  Military Defence
 Digital Defence (Recently Added)
ROLE

OBJECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION
PSYCHOLOGY RESELIANCE/ PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 ROLE:  ROLE:
 The role of Psychology Resilience is to groom the  Psychological Defence role is to increase individual
mentality of all Malaysian citizens to make sure they are
citizen's commitment to the nation and confidence in
ready and committed to defend the sovereignty and
peace of nation. the future of the country.

 OBJECTIVE:  OBJECTIVE:
 The main objective of Psychology Resilience is to  To develop the collective will to stand up for our
produce citizens that have the following characteristics rights; to protect what is ours; to seek to be left in
 Patriotism and nationalism peace; to progress and prosper in our own way as a
 The feeling of love for country nation.
 The proud of being a Malaysian
 The willingness to sacrifice for country
 Goodwill, national unity and integration among citizens
 Informative
SOCIAL COHERENT AND SOLIDARITY/ SOCIAL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 ROLE:  ROLE:
 The role of social coherent and solidarity on the other  The role of Social Defence is to create racial and
hand is to produce a united and harmonious religious tolerance and respect, as well as equal
Malaysian citizen, regardless of status difference, opportunities for all regardless of race, language or
race, religion, culture, and birth state.
religion. Social Defence also refers to every citizen,
especially those with the ability, education and
 OBJECTIVE: training, having the social conscience to contribute to
the larger community and country.
 To realise this role, the following objective must be
nurtured among every level of society in Malaysia:
 Loving each other  OBJECTIVE:
 Tolerance  The objective of Social Defence is about bringing up
 Be collaborative and united all Singaporeans regardless of their races and
 Practice the good and positive values religions living and working together in harmony.

 Respect the difference of religion


CIVIL PREPAREDENESS/ CIVIL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 ROLE:  ROLE:
 The civil preparedness role focused on two fields  Civil Defence provides for the safety and basic needs
which are providing life and property protection of the population on the home-front so that life may
facility and determine security and basic amenities go on as normally as possible during emergencies.
supply that continued whether in state war,
emergency or disaster.

 OBJECTIVE:
 OBJECTIVE:
 Civil Defence aims to produce a civilian population
 To strengthen public readiness, participation from
familiar with procedures for survival and protection,
voluntary bodies.
and with arrangements for relief services and
 To understand their roles when emergency, conflict, emergency supply of critical items like blood, water
and disaster occur, and during occurrence of war. and food.
 To produce citizens that have high level of self
reliance such as willing to give support to those need
is through direct involvement in voluntary bodies.
ECONOMIC RESILIENCE/ ECONOMIC DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 ROLE:  ROLE:
 To ensure the stock of basic nutrient supply as the  To ensure the economic sector sharing material and
national strategic asset. manpower resources to meet the needs of Civil and
Military Defence.
 To ensure the continuous operation of transportation,
power supply and water supply facility from  At individual level, the cultivation of a good working
interruption. attitude and constant upgrading of individual skills.
 To determine basic food supply level must be fixed to
ensure the country will always have enough basic  OBJECTIVE:
supply when experience conflict or emergency.
 The objective of Economic Defence is to ensure that
our offices and factories will be able to continue their
 OBJECTIVE: operations during emergencies, even after National
 The objective of Economic Resilience is to ensure Servicemen (NSmen) and equipment have been
lasting economic prosperity and competitiveness. mobilised to deal with the emergencies.
SECURITY READINESS/ MILITARY DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 ROLE:  ROLE:
 The role is to ensure the ability and equipped with  The role of Military Defence is the responsibility of
weaponry that is sophisticated in effort to aid the National Service Men, full-time National Service
authorities in law enforcement, protect public peace Men and regulars in the SAF, it also involves our own
and help the country when experience any disaster. military industries having the capacity to meet the
SAF's weapons and ammunition requirements.

 OBJECTIVE:
 OBJECTIVE:
 The objective of Military Defence is having an SAF
 Security element main objective (police) is to keep
able to deter aggression.
public safety, help government agencies, protect lives
and property also help in war efforts. While armed
forces responsible to defend sovereignty and national
interest.
PSYCHOLOGY RESELIANCE/ PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 IMPLEMENTATION:  IMPLEMENTATION:
 Patriotism and nationalism  commitment to the nation and confidence in the
future
 love their nation
 stay proud to be Singaporean
 proud to be Malaysian
 pride, passion and patriotism for country
 ready to sacrifice for nation
 EXAMPLES:
 goodwill, unity and national integration
 Patriotic Movie
 being informative in their soul in order to them have
willingness to protect the country  SAF Open Day
 EXAMPLES:  Total Defence Day (15 February)
 Armed Forces Parade
 Merdeka Parade
 Co-curricullam uniform activities
SOCIAL COHERENT AND SOLIDARITY/ SOCIAL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 IMPLEMNTATION:  IMPLEMENTATION:
 Maintaining racial and religious harmony  Maintaining racial and religious harmony
 Respect the culture and religion of one another  Respect the culture and religion of one another
 build strong bonds across different ethnic groups  build strong bonds across different ethnic groups
 looking out for each other – help the less unfortunate  looking out for each other – help the less unfortunate
and underprivileged regardless of race, language, and underprivileged regardless of race, language,
religion, age or nationality religion, age or nationality

 EXAMPLES:  EXAMPLES:
 Program Jiwa Murni  Racial Harmony Day (21 July)
 Civic’s studies in School
CIVIL PREPAREDENESS/ CIVIL DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 IMPLEMENTATION:  IMPLEMENTATION:
 Focused on public readiness programme  Recruits and trains civil defence volunteers in first
aid, rescue and evacuation procedures, and shelter
 Providing life and property protection facility
management.
 Determine security and basic amenities supply that
 Conducts talks and exercises to familiarise the public
continued whether in state war, emergency or disaster
with basic first aid, the nearest bomb shelters and
 EXAMPLES: emergency arrangements like relief supply of critical
 Jabatan Pertahanan Awam, RELA, Jabatan Bomba items such as blood, water and food.
dan Penyelamat, Red Crescent Society and St. John  EXAMPLES:
Ambulance and APMM.
 The Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF)
 Civil Defence Exercises
 SG Secure APP
ECONOMIC RESILIENCE/ ECONOMIC DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 IMPLEMENTATION:  IMPLEMENTATION:
 the stock of basic nutrient supply as the national  Ensure the continuity of production, operation during
strategic asset emergency and wartimes
 Ensure the continuous operation of transportation,  Sharing material and manpower resources to meet the
power supply and water supply facility from needs of Civil and Military Defence
interruption
 EXAMPLES:  EXAMPLES:
 Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace
 Defence Industry (ST Kinetic, ST Engineering)
(LIMA)
 Defence Industry ( Deftech, Sapura, West Star,
Boustead)
 60 RAJD AW, 70 RAJD AW, 40 RAJD AW.
SECURITY READINESS/ MILITARY DEFENCE

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 IMPLEMENTATION:  IMPLEMENTATION:
 To aware the Community in order to be prepared in  Staying operationally ready with their national
term of physically in wartime. servicemen.
 To acts as 2nd line defence after the Malaysian Armed  National Service Men able to transform themselves
Forces (MAF). from a disciplined and well prepared force in peace
 EXAMPLES: time to an effective fighting force in wartime.

 National Service (PLKN)


 EXAMPLES:
 Reserve Officer Training Unit
 MOBEX Exercise
 Reserve Units
 National Service (In Camp Training – ICT)
 Security Patrolling Cooperation Between MAF &
RMP.
Effectiveness of Hanruh and Total Defence concepts in Both States

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE
 Based on Fasiol Keling (2016), The concept of Hanruh in  Based on Fasiol Keling (2016), the same programe as PLKN
National Defence Policy is still unclear among Malaysian has implement in Singapore as National Service with fully
because these strategy is only can be understandable by military training was very successful.
the Millitary personnel.
 Based on RSIS, The concept of Total Defence has been a
 Based on Lee and K.S.Balakrishanan (2006.2002), In term
implementation of these concepts, the civil agency and the policy triumph chiefly because its simple yet powerful
community are still unclarified about these concepts, and message has gained great traction with generations of
at worst there are certain agency that never been heard off Singaporeans and Permanent Residents since being introduced
the concept. in 1984.
 EXAMPLES:  EXAMPLES:
 During the implementation of PLKN, there have been  Singapore’s Total Defence concepts was one of the best is
against by the community where about 30 to 40 percent of Asia.
the request for exclude their children from the program.
 Very Succuessful National Service Programe
 The National Civics Bureau which establish with the
objective of to nature the spirit of patriotism among
Malaysian, was promoting the former governing coalition
Barisian Nasional. (Has Been Misused)
CONCLUSION

 The Total Defence concepts applied in Singapore is seem to be more effective


and also well organised compare to Malaysia’s Hanruh concept.
 Historical Background, Government commitment, and Defence budget plays a
major role in the effectiveness of Singapore Total Defence concept.
 The concept of Hanruh is seen to be unsuccessful in Malaysia, as the community
does not fully understand these concept. In addition, the government does not
give full commitment in applying this concept.
REFERENCES
Website
Total Defence – Psychological Defence (2019) Retrieved April 13 , 2019, from
http://www.totaldefence.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/topics/totaldefence/about_td/5_Pillars/pd.html
Total Defence of Singapore (2019) Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://www.mindef.gov.sg/web/portal/mindef/defence-
matters/defence-topic/defence-topic-detail/defence-policy-and-diplomacy
Singapore Civil Defence Forces (2019) Retrieved April 19, 2019, from https://www.scdf.gov.sg/
Majlis Keselamatan Malaysia (2019) Retrieved April 19, 2019, from https://www.mkn.gov.my/page/perutusan
Kementerian Pertahanan Malaysia (2019) Retrived April 19, 2019, from www.mod.gov.my/ms/
Books
Abdul Razak, Azman. (2009). “Konsep Pertahanan Menyeluruh di Malaysia: Cabaran dan Masa Depan Angkatan Tentera Darat” dalam
majalah Perajurit. Kuala Lumpur: Jun, ms.17
Derek. (2002). Singapore in the New Millennium: Challenges Facing the City State. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Singapore.
Acharya. (2008). Singapore’s Foreign Policy: The Search for Regional Order. Institute of Policy Studies. Singapore Chap 4.
Edwin. (2008). Singapore The Unexpected Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Singapore.
M.Kadir. (2015). Malaysia Singapore: Fifty years of Contentions 1965-2015. The Other Press. KL.
A.Kamarulnizam. (2012). Keselamatan Nasional Malaysia. UKM. KL.Malaysia.
Online PDF
National Defence Policy (2010).Minstry of Defence. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from www.mod.gov.my/images/mindef/lain-lain/ndp.pdf
Keling, Faisol & Pakeer Mohamed, Ahmad & Shukri Suhib, Md. (2016). Dasar Pertahanan Negara Malaysia: Adakah ianya Kukuh?.
MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN. 1. 101. 10.17509/mimbardik.v1i1.1757.
Video Mobex Exercise