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V The "greenhouse effect" often gets a bad rap
because of its association with global
warming, but the truth is we couldn't live
without it.
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V Life on earth depends on energy from the sun.
About 30% of the sunlight that beams toward
Earth is deflected by the outer atmosphere
and scattered back into space. The rest
reaches the planet's surface and is reflected
upward again as a type of slow-moving energy
called infrared radiation.
V The heat caused by infrared radiation is absorbed
by "greenhouse gases" such as water vapor, carbon
dioxide, ozone and methane, which slows its escape
from the atmosphere.
V Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1
percent of the Earth's atmosphere, they regulate
our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a
kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet.
V This phenomenon is what scientists call the
"greenhouse effect." Without it, scientists estimate
that the average temperature on Earth would be
colder by approximately 30 degrees Celsius (54
degrees Fahrenheit), far too cold to sustain our
current ecosystem.
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V The problems begin when human activities distort
and accelerate the natural process by creating
˜  greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than
are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal
temperature.
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V §ltimately, more greenhouse gases means more
infrared radiation trapped and held, which
gradually increases the temperature of the
Earth's surface and the air in the lower
atmosphere.
V During the  
  , the average
global temperature increased by about 0.6
degrees Celsius (slightly more than 1 degree
Fahrenheit).
V §sing computer climate models, scientists
estimate that i     the average
global temperature will increase by 1.4 degrees
to 5.8 degrees Celsius (approximately 2.5
degrees to 10.5 degrees Fahrenheit).
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V Definition : increase in the average
temperature of Earth·s near-surface air and
ocean.
V Caused : increasing concentrations of
greenhouse gases, which results from human
activity such as the burning of fossil fuels and
deforestation.
V The global surface temperature is likely to rise
a further 1.1 °C - 6.4 °C during the 21st century.
V temperature rose by ± 0.18 °C over the period
1906²2005.
V Temperature changes vary over the globe.
Since 1979, land temperatures have increased
about twice as fast as ocean temperatures
(0.25 °C per decade against 0.13 °C per
decade).
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V The ozone layer is a region in the stratosphere
(situated between and 25 km above the earth
surface ² second layer of atmosphere, above
troposphere).
V The thinning of the O3 (OZONE) layer has been
recorded since 1970s.
V 1985, it was reported that the stratospheric ozone
concentrations (over the Antarctica) has declined
by 40% (since 1977). Ozone hole is caused by
atmosphere in Antarctica has very low
concentrations.
V §ltraviolet radiation has risen 7% in the
northern hemisphere and in southern
hemisphere has increase by 10%.
A satellite image
of the Antarctic
ozone hole. The
dark region on the
image is actually
an ozone hole.
V The causes ?
1. Is mainly due to the increasing levels of
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the
atmosphere.
2. CFCs are a group of chemicals compound
that contain chlorine, fluorine and carbon.
3. These gases are used as coolants in air
conditioners, refrigerators, propellants in
aerosol cans and foaming agents in the
making of Styrofoam packaging.
4. These chemicals are stables, so they can
persist in the environment for as long 75 to
100 years.
V ATTENTION!!!
V EVERY 1% DROP IN OZONE
CONCENTRATIONS RES§LTS IN A 2%
INCREASE IN THE INTENSITY OF THE
MOST HARMF§L TYPE OF
§LTRAVIOLET RAYS (§V-B WILL CA§SE
SKIN CANCER, CATARACTS AND
S§PPRESSION OF THE IMM§NE SYSTEM
WILL DECREASE)
Some products which contain
CFC compounds.
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V The ozone layer protects the Earth from the
ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone
layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the
planet could be catastrophic.
V Ozone is present in the stratosphere. The
stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at
the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are
absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do
not reach the Earth.
V OZONE: a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of
oxygen.
V The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of
two oxygen atoms, O2. When found on the surface of
the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant
and is one substance responsible for producing the
greenhouse effect.
V Cause :
1. Release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons
V Effects :
1. small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more
ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth.
2. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2%
more §V-B is able to reach the surface of the
planet. §V-B increase is one of the most harmful
consequences of ozone depletion because it can
cause skin cancer.
3. increase rates of malaria and other infectious
diseases. (such as cataract, etc)
4. environment will also be negatively affected.
V Effects :
5. aquatic lives (microscopic organisms such as
plankton may not be able to survive)
6. The planet's climate could also be affected by
depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could
change, resulting in climatic changes throughout
the world.
V Solutions :
1. limiting their use is hard because already great
quantities of CFCs in the environment. So
international action has been taken to limit CFCs
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V E 
V Warm spells or heat waves over most land area will
increase.
V Increased area will be affected by drought
V There will be increased intensed tropical cyclone
activity
V There will be increased incidences of extreme high
sea level (excluding tsunamis)
V Increased freshwater flow
V Flow of freshwater into the ocean increases, partly
from melting of ice
V Increase in global freshwater flow based on data
from 1994 to 2006 was about 18%
V Local climate change
V Melting of ice, changing the hydrological cycle and
changing currents in the ocean.

V The first recorded South Atlantic hurricane,


"Catarina", which hit Brazil in March 2004.
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V Mountain glaciers and snow cover had decreased in
both hemisphere which results in increases of sea level

V A map of the change in thickness of mountain glaciers


since 1970. Thinning in orange and red, thickening in
blue.
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V Oceans serve as a sink of carbon dioxide,CO2


V Acidification
V Dissolving CO2 in seawater increases the
hydrogen ion, H+ concentration in the ocean and
decreases ocean pH
V Oxygen depletion
V Amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may
declined
V Sea level rise
V Since 1961, global average sea level had risen at
an averagerate of 1.8 [1.3 to 2.3] mm/yr.
V Between 1993 and 2003, the rate increased above
the previous period to 3.1 [2.4 to 3.8] mm/yr.
V Temperature rise
V From 1961 to 2003, the global ocean temperature
has risen by 0.10 °C from the surface to a depth of
700 m.
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V Food supply
V Health
V Water resourcesMigration and conflict
V Aggregate impact
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V Increased §V
V Biological effects
V Effects on human :
1. Skin cancer : - Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas

- Malignant Melanoma
2. Cortical Cataracts

V Effects on crops :
1. A number of economically important species of
plants, such as rice, depend on cyanobacteria
residing on their roots for the retention of nitrogen.
Cyanobacteria are sensitive to §V light and they
would be affected by its increase.