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Data Analysis and

discussion
ORGANIZING AND ANANLYZING

Outline:

 Data analysis: definition

 Methods of collecting data
 Organizing Data
 Analyzing data
Data Analysis

 A crucial part of every research

 is the process of making sense out of the data. (Merriam,1988)
 Summary of data collection ( into charts, graphs, tables..)
 Interpretation of the collected data: relationships , trends…
 Organisation
Data

‘Data that is represented either in a verbal or narrative format is

qualitative data. These types of data are collected through focus
groups, interviews, opened ended questionnaire items, and other less
structured situations. A simple way to look at qualitative data is to think
of qualitative data in the form of words’

Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook, Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Technical Assistance
Center Academy for Educational Development Contract with DHHS/ACF/OHS/Migrant and Seasonal
Program Branch, P13
Data

 Can be qualitative or quantitative:

Quantitative:
. numercial : can put be in graph and can be measured

. Continous: data that you can measure/categorical ( eg: time ,

age ..;etc)
Qualitative: descriptive ( texture of smthg, colour …etc)

 Ordinal: ordered ( degree of pain)

Figure 2: Showing type of
variables in data
analysis

Labani S, Wadhwa K, Asthana S. Basic Approach to Data Analysis and Writing of Results and Discussion
Sections. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 31];3:6-15
Available from: http://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2017/3/1/6/201104
Methods of data collection

 Qualitative data are collected through:

interviews

Longitudinal
studies

observations
Document
survey

Tests
Quantitative Data

 collected though:

Experiments

Sampling

Structured
interviews
Organizing data

 Classification of data to make it useful.
 Files naming: use meaningful abbreviations
 Prepare tables or graphs
 Check accuracy
 Meeting with your supervisor to help process data.
Analyzing Data

(Tesch, 1990)

 Quantitative date vs. qualitative data

Analyzing Quantitative data:

 there are two ways in which data are analyzed:

 Descriptive Statistics
 Procedures used to describe a given collection of data.
 The purpose is to describe the sample at hand
 the collection of cases that we have examined.
 Inferential Statistics
 Procedures that let us generalize our findings beyond the particular
sample at hand to the larger population represented by that sample.
Quantitative data

 The T test ( SPSS) : ‘is used to determine if two groups or levels of an

independent variable differ on a dependent variable’ P 122
 http://www.slideshare.net/sspink/seminar-on-spss
 http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/toc.htm
 analysis of variance (ANOVA) : ‘is used to determine if three or more
groups or levels of an independent variable differ on a dependent
variable. Analysis of variance is the logical extension of a t test’

 Qualtrics: web based software, used to create surveys and reports.

http://qualtrics.com/university/researchsuite/reporting/cross-
Analyzing Qualitative data

 Can be divided to five categories:

Framework
Content
analysis
analysis
Discourse
analysis

Narrative Grounded
analysis Theory
Analysis of Qualitative data

 Content analysis: ‘the process of categorizing verbal or behavioural

data to classify, summarize it’
 Narrative analysis: revision of the primary data.
 Discourse analysis : analysis of natural discourse.
 Framework analysis : coding , charting ,mapping..;etc
 Grounded theory: This approach refers to theory that is “grounded in
or developed inductively from a set of data”
Qualitative data analysis is conducted through the following
three steps:

 Step one : Coding : organization of data

Open coding. organization of raw data.
Axial coding. linking the categories of codes.
Selective coding. Formulating ideas throung connections of codes

 Coding can be manual or by softwares: NVivo, Atlas ti 6.0, HyperRESEARCH

2.8, Max QDA
Example of coding:

to Chinese market

 Codes: franchising , importing , exporting..;etc

Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships

 Scan primarily data

 Compare your findings with the results found in the review of the
litterature
 Search for gaps or missing information.
Step 3: summarizing

References:

 Labani S, Wadhwa K, Asthana S. Basic Approach to Data Analysis

and Writing of Results and Discussion Sections. MAMC J Med Sci
2017;3:6-15
 Creswell, J.W.(2009). Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods
Approach, chapter 9, Qualitative Procedures.
 Herbert W.S,Elana.S.(1989).Second language research
methods.London.Oxford university press
 Scott.W , Deirdre.J(2009).Research methods for everyday life:
blending qualitative and quantitative approaches.San
Francisco.John wiley and sons.