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DIgSILENT GmbH

P1843 – Optimization of the Protection Settings for the


115 kV Electrical Power System of PEA in Thailand

Review of Existent Calculation Model


and Verification of Technical Ratings
Review of the network model - Introduction

The transmission grid of PEA is divided in 12 power


supply areas. DIgSILENT GmbH has perform network
studies for one of those areas - Area 1(Central) Phra
Nakhon Si Ayutthaya - in order to verify and/or define
settings for the protection devices existent in the
considered grid.

CMU provided a network model for the considered 115


kV system.

Key Data:

- Total line length of 2132.75 km


- The maximum installed generation capacity: 2458.89
MVA - Maximum load: 4318.59 MVA.

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Review of the network model

Task 1: Review of the existing network model


- The accuracy of the results of network calculations depends strongly of the accuracy level of the
network model
- The review is of the model were done on a plausibility basis
- Plausibility of data (no comparison of model information with data sheets)
- Identification of overloads
- Violation of thermal ratings
Load Flow and Short Circuit
- Recommendations to improve the accuracy of the model
Calculations
- Modification of the data structure in order to facilitate the evaluation of the results
- Definition of feeder and zones
- Insertion of geo-referenced coordinates

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Network Model

-Based on the switching status

16 regions can be identified

-Each listed region has a direct

power supply from EGAT

-Almost every zone can be

connected to neighbor zone by

changing the switching status.

Only Zone “Watthana

Nakhon” (EGAT_WNK) has


no connection another zone

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Network Model - Enhancement

A geographical representation of the grid has been created getting

the GPS coordinates of the substations from “Openstreetmaps”

and introducing that information in PowerFactory.

By setting the GPS coordinates in the terminals edit dialogs,

specific nodes can bel geographically automatically represented.

The map shows only estimated locations of the terminals due to a

lack of GPS information and straight line connections between two

nodes.

Remark: It is not a validated representation of the actual

geographical power grid. .

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Review of Network Model

The review was done by the following structure:

1. Types Data: Manufacturer data sheet of the equipment

Busbar, Line, Synchronous Machine, 2-Winding and 3-Winding Transformer

2. Element data: Operational data of the equipment, e.g. load and generators operation points, star

point connection and/or position of tap changer for transformers, length of the line, etc

3. Operational data: Data that can be managed by the object “Operation Scenario” in PowerFactory.

This include controller settings for external grids, tap changers and generators, as well as

the position of breakers

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Review of Network Model – Types Data

Busbar Types (TypBar):


- 5 different busbar types defined and used.
- No information about rated Ith[1s] and rated ip. For calculations no problem, but without that
information the short circuit calculation cannot estimate the thermal and mechanical loading/stress of
the busbars
Line Types (TypLne):
- Only two line types are defined and used
- Zero Sequence Data
- Rated Ith[1s]?

Rtd. rat.
Cable / R'(AC,20°C) X' R0'(AC) X0' C' C0' Max. End.
Name Voltage Current
OHL [Ohm/km] [Ohm/km] [Ohm/km] [Ohm/km] [uF/km] [uF/km] Temp. [degC]
[kV] [kA]

1x400 115 0,9 OHL 0,085811 0,36204 0,25485 1,4223 0 0 80

2X400 115 1,8 Cable 0,042936 0,2677 0,21347 1,3294 0 0 80

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Review of Network Model – Types Data

Generator Types (TypSym):


- 30 different generator types defined and 17 used.
- No data for the resistive component for the positive, negative and zero sequence system.
- Same value for x0, x2 and xd”sat for all machines (only GEN58.82MVA-RJN1 differs), PowerFactory
predefined default values?
2-Winding Transformer (TypTr2):
- 25 different transformer types defined and used
- All transformer with secondary winding at 22 kV are connected at the primary side in delta, all other
are connected in star.
- No copper and no load losses defined.
- No tap changer
- uk seems to be in the regular range according to transformer size
- uk0 = uk acceptable approximation. uk0 depends of the vector group of the transformers

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Review of Network Model – Types Data

3-Winding Transformer (TypTr3):


- 2 different transformer types defined and used.
- The comments related to 2-winding transformer applies

Name HV- MV- LV- HV- MV- LV- Name HV-MV HV-MV No Load Los.
rtd.Pow. rtd.Pow. rtd.Pow. rtd.Volt. rtd.Volt. rtd.Volt. Cop.Los. uk0 kW
MVA MVA MVA kV kV kV kW %
3-Winding 100 88 66 115 11,5 11,5 YN0d1d1 0 8 0
Transformer
Type
TR 110 MVA- 110 88 66 115 11,5 11,5 YN0d1d1 0 8 0
RJN1

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Review of Network Model – Elements Data

External Grid (ElmXnet):


- Representation of the coupling points to the EGAT transmission grid. The external grids define the
short circuit level in the grid where it is connected.
- 17 external grids defined in the 115 kV grid. In 14 cases the defined min. Sk” was higher than the max.
Sk”.
- Recommendation: include in the model the transformer of EGAT and model the external grid on the
highest voltage level.
Star Point 115 kV:
- All external grids and all transformer connected in star at the primary side are solidly grounded (star
point without resistance or reactance inserted)
Shunt Elements (ElmShnt):
- Two defined elements connected at the same busbar (Phatthana Nikhom (Area N3) - N3_PXA).
Reactive compensation equipment.

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Review of Network Model – Operational Data

Data that can be managed with the definition of operation scenarios


Generators (ElmSym):
- 53 Machines defined in the model. (5 out of service, 1 machine without type)
- All machines are working with the control Constant P-Q (there is not control of the voltage defined)
- The operation point for all connected machines is at zero power supply, i.e. for load flow calculation
there is not contribution of the generators but for the short circuit calculation.
Transformers (ElmTr2):
- No tap changer defined, therefore no voltage control.
Loads (ElmLos):
- 186 loads defined. All loads are in delta connection
Recommendation: Definition of operation scenarios in order to represent and analyze different worst
cases or daily cases(e.g. max. load/max. generation, max. load/min. generation, min.
load/max.generation, min. load/min.Generation)

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Verification based on the results of load flow and short circuit calculations
Considerations for evaluation based on Load Flow Calculation:
- Two study cases with max. load (100%) and min. load (assumed to 60% of max. load),
- Equipment loading over 80%,
- Voltage deviations over 5% from the nominal voltage,
- Branch element losses.
Considerations for evaluation based on Short Circuit Calculation:
- Two study cases with max. Sk” (100%) and min. Sk” (assumed to 60% of max. Sk” – Definition
of a variation in PowerFactory model),
- 3 phase faults with zero fault impedance,
- Initial (Ik”), peak (ip) and thermal equivalent (Ith) short-circuit currents on all energised busbars.

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Verification based on the results of load flow and short circuit calculations
Considerations for evaluation based on Load Flow Calculation:
- Two study cases with max. load (100%) and min. load (assumed to 60% of max. load),
- Equipment loading over 80%,
- Voltage deviations over 5% from the nominal voltage,
- Branch element losses.
Considerations for evaluation based on Short Circuit Calculation:
- Two study cases with max. Sk” (100%) and min. Sk” (assumed to 60% of max. Sk” – Definition
of a variation in PowerFactory model),
- 3 phase faults with zero fault impedance,
- Initial (Ik”), peak (ip) and thermal equivalent (Ith) short-circuit currents on all energised busbars.

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Load Flow Calculations Analysis:


- Maximum load conditions are important for the analysis of the
settings of protection devices. If max. load flow and min. short-circuit
currents are on the same level, the distance protection starting unit
has to be adapted.
- The maximum load scenario results in low voltage levels and high equipment loading. In
the case of minimum load and steady generation, the voltage levels may rise.

- For the reduction of the load values in the study case “Min. Load” scaling factors were
used

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Load Flow Calculations Analysis:


- Maximum load conditions are important for the analysis of the
settings of protection devices. If max. load flow and min. short-circuit
currents are on the same level, the distance protection starting unit
has to be adapted.
- The maximum load scenario results in low voltage levels and high equipment loading. In
the case of minimum load and steady generation, the voltage levels may rise.

- For the reduction of the load values in the study case “Min. Load” scaling factors were
used

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Max. load flow


- Nodes with U ≤ 0,95 p.u. (Un)
- Branches with Loading ≥ 80% In
- No voltages with U>1 p.u. external
grids regulate the voltage and
generators are not supplying power.
- Lowest voltage = 0,79 p.u (WANG
NAM YEN )
- Maximum loading =141 % In. (Zone:
Lam Luk Ka 2)
- Grid Losses: 41,67 MW (only Lines)

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Min. load flow

- Nodes with U ≤ 0,95 p.u. (Un)

- No Branches with Loading ≥ 80% In

- No voltages with U>1 p.u. external


grids regulate the voltage and
generators are not supplying power.

- Lowest voltage = 0,89 p.u (WANG


NAM YEN )

- Maximum loading = 79 % In. (Zone:


Lam Luk Ka 2)

- Grid Losses: 13,96 MW (only Lines)

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

Short Circuit Calculations Analysis:


- External grid short circuit values were adapted => Sk”max > Sk”min

- Changes done in a variation => Sk”min = 60% Sk”max (assumption)

- IEC 60909 – 2001.

- Break time = 0.1 s, (Ib)

- Fault clearing time = 1 s. (Ith)

- For generators with Sn < 100 MVA and Un > 1 kV: R/X = 0,07

- Ik“max = 50,2 kA at Stations SUWINTHAWONG (MEA) and NONG KHAE 2 (islanded zone
„SR5“)

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Verification of Technical Ratings of the Equipment

- In order to evaluate the thermal and mechanical stress of the busbars and line systems is
necessary the rated short circuit capability of those equiments (Type Data)
- Ik“max = 50,2 kA at Stations SUWINTHAWONG (MEA) and NONG KHAE 2 (islanded zone
„SR5“)

- The short circuit current contributions of the generators cannot be neglected for Ik“max.

- The minimum 3-phase short circuit current is at substation WANG NAM YEN with 1,415 kA
(min. 2-phase short circuit = 1,23 kA)

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Tie-Open Point Optimisation

Due to the mostly radial operated zones in the 115 kV network, there is optimization potential
regarding the reduction of network losses by changing the position of the open breakers.

Tie-Open Point Optimisation (TOPO) Tool evaluates the switching status with an iterative
optimisation method. The objective function minimizes the network losses only by changing
the position of the opened breakers.

- Since the TOPO-Tool does not work with closed loops, the internal loops in the zones were
opened without any criteria. This leads to an increment of the losses from 41,67 MW to
44,73 MW, but after the optimization of the position of the opened breakers the losses are
reduced to 28,03 MW

- In order to compare the results a new operation scenario has been defined.

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Tie-Open Point Optimisation

TOPO – original zones

- Losses: 44,73 MW

- Umin = 0,738 p.u. (WANG NAM


YEN)

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Tie-Open Point Optimisation

TOPO optimized zones

- Losses: 28,03 MW

- Umin. = 0,8999 p.u. (CHOW STEEL


INDUSTRIES)

- At WANG NAM YEN the voltage


increase from 0,738 p.u. till 0,929
p.u,

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