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# UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF WORK,

## ENERGY AND POWER

• DEFINE WORK, ENERGY AND POWER.
• CALCULATE THE FORM OF ENERGY BY USING FORMULA KINETIC ENERGY AND POTENTIAL ENERGY.
• STATE THE PRINCIPAL OF CONSERVATION ENERGY.
• DESCRIBE CONVERSION FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER FORM
• APPLY THE CONCEPT AND FORMULA OF WORK, ENERGY AND POWER IN SOLVING THE RELATED PROBLEMS.
• CALCULATE THE EFFICIENCY OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY
WORK
• WORK IS DEFINED AS THE PRODUCT OF THE NET FORCE ACTING ON A BODY AND
THE DISTANCE MOVED IN THE DIRECTION OF THE FORCE
• WORK = FORCE X PARALLEL DISTANCE
• W=FXD
• SI UNIT: J - JOULES (1 JOULES = 1NM = 1KGM2/S2
• ENERGY TRANSFORMED = WORK DONE = APPLIED FORCE X DISTANCE
• ONLY THE COMPONENT OF THE APPLIED
FORCE, F, IN THE DIRECTION OF THE
MOTION OF THE OBJECT, FHORIZONTAL, IS
USED TO DO WORK ON THE LAWN MOWER
WORK
EXAMPLE:
• A CRATE OF MASS 50KG IS
PUSHED ALONG A FLOOR WITH
A FORCE OF 20N FOR A
DISTANCE OF 5M. CALCULATE
THE WORK DONE.
• SOLUTION:
• W= FXD
• = 20N X 5M
• W = 100NM
EXAMPLE:
• A MAN EXERTS A FORCE OF 2KN ON A BOULDER BUT FAILS TO MOVE IT.
CALCULATE THE WORK DONE.
• SOLUTION:
• W=FXD
• D = 0 BECAUSE THE BOULDER DOES NOT MOVE
• W = 2000 X 0
• WD = 0
EXAMPLE:
• HOW FAR MUST A 5N FORCE PULL A 50G TOY CAR IF 30J OF ENERGY ARE
TRANSFERRED?
• SOLUTION:
• W=FXD
• D=W/ F
• D =30 J(5N)
• SO D = 6M
PRACTICE!
• 1. AN OBJECT IS MOVED WITH A FORCE OF 15 N ACROSS A HORIZONTAL
SURFACE. HOW MUCH WORK IS DONE IF THE OBJECT IS MOVED 50 M?
• 2. 650 J OF WORK IS DONE IN MOVING A DESK A HORIZONTAL DISTANCE OF
5 M. HOW MUCH FORCE IS USED TO MOVE THE DESK?
• 3. HOW MUCH WORK IS DONE IN LIFTING A 10 KG BOX 1.5 M OFF THE
FLOOR?
ENERGY
• ENERGY IS DEFINED AS CAPACITY TO DO WORK.
• SI UNIT : JOULE (J)
• FORMS OF ENERGY.
• 1. POTENTIAL
• 2. KINETIC
• 3. ELECTRIC
• 4. CHEMICAL
• 5. SOLAR
• 6. NUCLEAR
POTENTIAL ENERGY

## • THE ENERGY ASSOCIATED WITH POSITION IS CALLED POTENTIAL ENERGY.

• POTENTIAL ENERGY IS THE STORED ENERGY OF POSITION POSSESSED BY AN OBJECT.
EXAMPLE:
• THE HEAVY BALL OF A DEMOLITION MACHINE IS STORING ENERGY WHEN IT IS HELD AT AN ELEVATED
POSITION.
TWO FORMS OF POTENTIAL ENERGY

• 1. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY IS THE ENERGY STORED IN AN OBJECT AS THE RESULT OF ITS
VERTICAL POSITION OR HEIGHT.
• THE ENERGY IS STORED AS THE RESULT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION OF THE EARTH FOR THE
OBJECT.
• THE HIGHER THAT AN OBJECT IS ELEVATED, THE GREATER THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY.
PEgrav = mass • g • height

PEgrav = m *• g • h
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
• FOR EXAMPLE, A PENDULUM BOB SWINGING TO AND FROM ABOVE THE TABLETOP HAS A POTENTIAL
ENERGY THAT CAN BE MEASURED BASED ON ITS HEIGHT ABOVE THE TABLETOP. BY MEASURING THE MASS
OF THE BOB AND THE HEIGHT OF THE BOB ABOVE THE TABLETOP, THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE BOB CAN
BE DETERMINED.
• SINCE THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY OF AN OBJECT IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS HEIGHT
ABOVE THE ZERO POSITION, A DOUBLING OF THE HEIGHT WILL RESULT IN A DOUBLING OF THE
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY. A TRIPLING OF THE HEIGHT WILL RESULT IN A TRIPLING OF THE
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY.
EXAMPLE:

• A FOOTBALL OF MASS 2.5KG IS LIFTED UP TO THE TOP OF A CLIFF THAT IS 180M HIGH. HOW MUCH
POTENTIAL ENERGY DOES THE FOOTBALL GAIN?
• SOLUTION:
• PE = MGH
• = 2.5 X 10 X 180 SO EP = 4500J
PRACTICE
• USE THIS PRINCIPLE TO DETERMINE
THE BLANKS IN THE FOLLOWING
DIAGRAM. KNOWING THAT THE
POTENTIAL ENERGY AT THE TOP OF
THE TALL PLATFORM IS 50 J, WHAT
IS THE POTENTIAL ENERGY AT THE
OTHER POSITIONS SHOWN ON THE
STAIR STEPS AND THE INCLINE?
• 2. ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY IS THE ENERGY STORED IN ELASTIC MATERIALS AS THE RESULT OF THEIR
STRETCHING OR COMPRESSING.
• ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY CAN BE STORED IN RUBBER BANDS, BUNGEE CHORDS, TRAMPOLINES,
SPRINGS, AN ARROW DRAWN INTO A BOW, ETC.
• THE AMOUNT OF ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY STORED IN SUCH A DEVICE IS RELATED TO THE AMOUNT OF
STRETCH OF THE DEVICE - THE MORE STRETCH, THE MORE STORED ENERGY.
• PESPRING = 0.5 • K • X2
WHERE K = SPRING CONSTANT

X = AMOUNT OF COMPRESSION
(RELATIVE TO EQUILIBRIUM POSITION)
PRACTICE
• 1. A CART IS LOADED WITH A BRICK AND PULLED
AT CONSTANT SPEED ALONG AN INCLINED PLANE
TO THE HEIGHT OF A SEAT-TOP. IF THE MASS OF
THE LOADED CART IS 3.0 KG AND THE HEIGHT OF
THE SEAT TOP IS 0.45 METERS, THEN WHAT IS
THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE LOADED CART AT
THE HEIGHT OF THE SEAT-TOP?
• 2. IF A FORCE OF 14.7 N IS USED TO DRAG THE
LOADED CART (FROM PREVIOUS QUESTION)
ALONG THE INCLINE FOR A DISTANCE OF 0.90
METERS, THEN HOW MUCH WORK IS DONE ON
KINETIC ENERGY

## • ANY MOVING OBJECT HAS KINETIC ENERGY (EK).

• THE KINETIC ENERGY OF AN OBJECT WILL INCREASE IF MASS INCREASES.
• THE KINETIC ENERGY WILL INCREASE IF SPEED INCREASES.
• KE=1/2MV2
• • IF SPEED IS DOUBLED, ENERGY X 4
• • IF SPEED IS TRIPLE, ENERGY X 9
EXAMPLE:
• HOW MUCH KINETIC ENERGY HAS A 160G CRICKET BALL WHEN IT IS THROWN AT A SPEED OF 22M/S?
• SOLUTION:
• KE=1/2MV2
• =0.5 X 0.16KGX (22M/S)2
• = 0.5 X 0.16 KGX 484M2/S2
• KE = 38.72J
EXAMPLE:
• EXAMPLE: HOW FAST IS 4 KG TROLLEY MOVING IF IT HAS 180.5J OF KINETIC ENERGY?
• SOLUTION:
• KE=1/2MV2 2KE=MV2 V2 = 2KE(M)
• V =2X180.5 /4
• V = 9. 5M/S
• EXAMPLE: A BALL ROLLS OFF A TABLE AND HITS THE FLOOR AT 5M/S. WHAT IS THE
HEIGHT OF THE TABLE.
• INITIAL ENERGY = PE FINAL ENERGY = KE
• BUT CONSERVATION OF ENERGY TELLS THAT PE = KE.
• MGH = 1/2MV2
• 2GH = V2
• H= V2 /2G =52/ 2(9.8)
• H = 1.28M
POWER
• POWER IS THE RATE AT WHICH WORK IS DONE
• POWER IS THE WAY WE MEASURE HOW QUICKLY ENERGY IS BEING CHANGED. WHEN WE LOOK AT THE
POWER OF A MOVING OBJECT, WE ARE REALLY LOOKING AT HOW FAST WORK IS HAPPENING.
• POWER = WORK DONE TIME TAKEN
• P=F X D/ T
• POWER IS MEASURED IN WATTS.
• (1 WATT=1 JOULE/S)
EXAMPLE
A PERSON OF MASS 70KG RUNS UP A FLIGHT OF STAIRS WITH A VERTICAL HEIGHT OF 5M. IF THE TRIP
TAKES 7S TO COMPLETE, CALCULATE THE PERSON’S POWER.
• SOLUTION:
• W = PE = MGH = 70 X 10 X 5 = 3500J
• POWER = WORK DONE/ TIME =3500 J/ 7S
• POWER = 500W
EXAMPLE:
• A LIFT MOTOR HAS TO MOVE A FULLY LADEN LIFT 4M BETWEEN FLOORS IN 1.5S. THE LIFT HAS A MASS OF
1850KG (IGNORE FRICTION).
• A) CALCULATE THE WEIGHT OF THE FULLY LADEN LIFT.
• W = MG = 1850 X 10 = 18500N
• B) WHAT IS THE UPWARD FORCE IN THE CABLE WHEN THE LIFT IS MOVING AT A CONSTANT SPEED?
• AT CONSTANT SPEED, FORCES MUST BE BALANCED. UPWARD FORCE = DOWNWARD FORCE (WEIGHT)
• UPWARD FORCE = 18500N
EXAMPLE:
• C) WHAT IS THE WORK DONE BY THE MOTOR?
• W= F X D = 18500 X 4 = 74000J
• D) WHAT IS THE MINIMUM POWER OF THE MOTOR TO RAISE THE LIFT AT A STEADY SPEED?
• STEADY SPEED MEANS FORCES ARE BALANCED.
• POWER=WORK DONE/ TIME =74000J/ 1.5 S
• POWER = 49333W