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Artificial Intelligence

Today we’ll discus:


• Intelligence
• Artificial Intelligence
• A brief history of AI
• Cool current projects in AI
Nervous system
• The nervous system is the part of
humans that coordinates its actions by
transmitting signals to and from different
parts of its body.
Senses
Nerve cell
Neuron or the nerve
cell is the basic unit
of nervous system
that carries electrical
impulses.
Neurons in the brain
Brain X-ray
What’s involved in
Intelligence?
• Ability to interact with the world (speech,
vision, motion, manipulation)
• Ability to model the world and to reason
about it
• Ability to learn and to adapt
Intelligence
• Are the things shown below, Intelligent?

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Searching a path …

Different mice might follow different paths based to their intelligence


In other words: The problem can be solved in many ways
Ability to solve problems shows Intelligence
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Features of Intelligence
• Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from,
understand, and interact with the environment.
• It may included of the following specific features:
– Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the current
environment
– Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it
– Capacity for reason and abstract thought
– Ability to comprehend relationships
– Ability to evaluate and judge
– Capacity for original and productive thought

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Intelligence of Computer
• According to the British computer scientist
Alan Turing's test in (1950):
– “A computer would deserves to be called intelligent
if it could deceive a human into believing that it
was human.”

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So what exactly AI means?

• AI is the Branch of computer science that


deals with the simulation of intelligent
behaviour in computers.
Artificial Intelligence
• Making computers that think
• The automation of activities we associate with human thinking,
like decision making, learning ...
• The art of creating machines that perform functions that require
intelligence when performed by people ?
What Contributes to AI?
Academic Disciplines relevant to AI
Disciplines Methods
Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system,
Philosophy
foundations of learning, language, rationality.
Formal representation and proof, algorithms, computation,
Mathematics
(un)decidability, (in)tractability
Probability/Statistics modeling uncertainty, learning from data
Economics utility, decision theory, rational economic agents
Neuroscience neurons as information processing units.
Psychology/ Cognitive how do people behave, perceive, process cognitive
Science information, represent knowledge.
Computer Engineering building fast computers
design systems that maximize an objective function over
Control theory
time
Linguistics knowledge representation, grammars
Artificial Intelligence

THOUGHT Systems that think Systems that think


like humans rationally

Systems that act Systems that act


BEHAVIOUR like humans rationally

HUMAN RATIONAL
Goals in AI
• To build systems that exhibit intelligent
behavior
• To understand intelligence in order to model
it
Modeling people?
• Sometimes
• But sometimes we want AI systems to be
better and smarter than we are
A Brief History of AI
• 1943: McCulloch and Pitts propose a model
of artificial neurons
• 1956 Minsky and Edmonds build first
neural network computer, the SNARC
The Dartmouth Conference
(1956)
• John McCarthy organizes a two-month
workshop for researchers interested in
neural networks and the study of
intelligence
• Agreement to adopt a new name for this
field of study: Artificial Intelligence
1966-1974 Reality:
• AI problems appear to be too big and
complex
• Computers are very slow, very expensive,
and have very little memory (compared to
today)
1969-1979 Knowledge-based
systems:
• Birth of expert systems
• Idea is to give AI systems lots of
information to start with
1980-1988 AI in industry:
• R1 becomes first successful commercial
expert system
• Some interesting phone company systems
for diagnosing failures of telephone service
1990s to the present:
• Increases in computational power
(computers are cheaper, faster, and have
tons more memory than they used to)
• An example of the coolness of speed:
Computer Chess
Modern Trends of AI
Machine Learning
• Looking for patterns in vast amounts of data
that is just too big for humans to analyze.
Agents in Artificial Intelligence
• An agent is anything that can be viewed as
perceiving its environment through sensors
and acting upon that environment through
actuators.
• We use the term percept to refer to the
agent’s perceptual inputs at any given
instant.
Advantages
• It can help improve our life
• Machines will be able to do jobs that
require detailed instructions.
• Use robots for heavy construction, military
benefits or even for personal assistance at
homes.
Advantages
• Less room for errors
• Ability to take Right decision in a short
span of time
• Work in risky situation
– Situations where the safety of a human is
unsure, an AI machine that is fitted with
predefined algorithms can be used. (Mining)
• Can work 24/7 continuously
Disadvantages
• Expensive to implement
• Dependency of humans on machines is ever
increasing
• Replaces humans causing unemployment
• Restricted work
– Machines cannot think creatively or out of the
box and will not perform such tasks