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Humanism and Dramaturgy

Theories and Definition

What is the Humanistic Approach?
 Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes
looking at the whole individual and stresses concepts
such as free will, self-efficacy, and self-actualization.
Rather than concentrating on dysfunction, humanistic
psychology strives to help people fulfill their potential
and maximize their well-being.
 The humanistic approach in psychology developed as a
rebellion against what some psychologists saw as the
limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic
psychology. The humanistic approach is thus often called
the “third force” in psychology after psychoanalysis and
behaviorism (Maslow, 1968).
Humanistic psychology expanded its influence
throughout the 1970s and the 1980s. Its impact
can be understood in terms of three major areas:
 It offered a new set of values for approaching an
understanding of human nature and the human
 It offered an expanded horizon of methods of inquiry
in the study of human behavior.
 It offered a broader range of more effective methods in
the professional practice of psychotherapy.
Humanistic psychology begins with the existential
assumptions that people have free will:

 Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise

of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we
make in life, the paths we go down and their
People are basically good, and have an innate need
to make themselves and the world better:

 The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal

worth of the individual, the centrality of human values,
and the creative, active nature of human beings.The
approach is optimistic and focuses on noble human
capacity to overcome hardship, pain and despair.
People are motivated to self-actualize:

 Self-actualization concerns psychological

growth, fulfillment and satisfaction in life.
Maslow’s hiearchy of needs
 Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology
proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A
Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.
Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his
observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories
parallel many other theories of human developmental
psychology, some of which focus on describing the
stages of growth in humans. He then decided to create
a classification system which reflected the universal
needs of society as its base and then proceeding to
more acquired emotions.
 Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans
intrinsically partake in behavioral motivation. Maslow used
the terms "physiological", "safety", "belonging and love",
"social needs" or "esteem", and "self-actualization" to
describe the pattern through which human motivations
generally move. This means that in order for motivation to
occur at the next level, each level must be satisfied within the
individual themselves. Furthermore, this theory is a key
foundation in understanding how drive and motivation are
correlated when discussing human behavior.
 Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective
commonly used in microsociological
accounts of social interaction in everyday
 The term was first adapted into sociology from the theatre by
Erving Goffman, who developed most of the related terminology
and ideas in his 1959 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday
Life. Kenneth Burke, whom Goffman would later acknowledge as an
influence, had earlier presented his notions of dramatism in 1945,
which in turn derives from Shakespeare. However, the fundamental
difference between Burke's and Goffman's view is that Burke
believed that life was in fact theatre, whereas Goffman viewed
theatre as a metaphor. If we imagine ourselves as directors
observing what goes on in the theatre of everyday life, we are
doing what Goffman called dramaturgical analysis, the study of
social interaction in terms of theatrical performance.
 Goffman believed that when we are born, we are thrust
onto a stage called everyday life, and that our
socialization consists of learning how to play our
assigned roles from other people. We enact our roles in
the company of others, who are in turn enacting their
roles in interaction with us. He believed that whatever
we do, we are playing out some role on the stage of life.
 References
 https://www.sparknotes.com/sociology/identity-and-
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs
 https://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramaturgy_(sociology)

 Images
 9gag
 Google Images
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