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Islam is the Youngest

2nd Largest Religion

Every 5th person worldwide

Judaism Hinduism Buddhism Christianity Islam

2000 BC 1000 BC 563 BC 33 AD 610 AD 2013

Religion Care


Values Beliefs
Islamic Law and Rules

The Holy Book Quran

(Hadith), words or actions
of the prophet

(Ijma) of the Clerics Consensus

(Ijtihad) personal study Wisdom

Values: Regulates:
Honor parents Marriage
Be kind to neighbors Divorce
Protect the weak Inheritance
Give to the poor Business

The Qur’an
Forbids: Condemns:
Gambling Murder
Pork Stealing
Alcohol Lying
Prostitution Adultery
Oneness of God
All can, no body or sex

Life after Death Angels of God

Sorting to Hill or Paradise From light to serve God

Beliefs Prophets of God
Day of Judgment From Adam to Mohammed (25)
Rise of humanity

Books of God
Divine Decree Of Abraham, David,
Fate set in advance Moses, Jesus, Mohammed
Health, Religion & Ethics

Contraception Brain Death

Fertility Organ Donation
Cloning Euthanasia
Medications Death
Resuscitation Life after Death
The Sharia Law System
Category Arabic Do it Not do it
Obligatory Fard
Wajeb Reward Punishment
Recommended Mustahab
Mandub Reward No Punishment
Permitted Mubah
Halal No Reward No Punishment
Discouraged Makruh
Manboth No Punishment Reward
Forbidden Haraam
Mahd’ur Punishment No Reward
Enforcing of not Doing

Urging of not Doing
Choice of Doing

Urging of Doing

Enforcing of Doing

Obligatory = wajib 55 Pillars

Pilgrimage of
Hajj of Faith
Hajj Shahadah

Charity Beliefs Prayer
Charity (Ibada) Prayer
Zakat Salat


Copyright 1995 Prentice Hall

Recommended = Mustahab

 Blood and organ donation. (giving and receiving).

 Circumcision of male infants (7th day). Controversy of
female circumcision.
 Breast feeding (two years).
 Human skin bank: lawful for medical grafting and
unlawful for cosmetics and misleading others.
Recommended = Mustahab
 Autopsy: if for medically or by law indicated.
 Reconstructive Surgery (post mastectomy).
 Do Not Resuscitate order: when the treatment becomes
 Withdrawal or withheld therapy is permitted in brain
 Genetic Engineering: to alter or cure diseased genes.
 Abortion: pregnancy that risk the mother’s health,
physically or mentally.
Discourage = Makruh

 Forced feeding the sick.

 Smoking
 Divorce
 Elective abortion before age 120 days
(some sects before 40 days).
Forbidden = Haram
 Surgical contraception: (Sterilization: Vasectomy & tubal
ligation). Permitted for mentally sick or when another
pregnancy risks mother’s life.
 Sperm or ova donation.
 Fetal Sex Determination.
 Elective abortion in a healthy mother 120 days after
 Human milk bank.
 Human cloning (permitted for tissues and organs).
Forbidden = Haram
 Surrogacy Uterus: Surrogacy involving a third person is
not permissible. (even if the woman involved is another
wife of the husband).
 Sex: Oral sex, homosexual and gay/lesbian relation,
prostitution and sex outside marriage.
 Cosmetic surgery: Changing the creation of Allah.
 Food: not Halal meat, of pork or dead animal/bird.
 Drink: alcohol.
 Others: interest, theft, gambling and drugs.
Forbidden = Haram
 Active Euthanasia: voluntary, non-voluntary and
Involuntary are not permissible under any
 Passive euthanasia: treatment is not obligatory when
there is no hope of survival (brain death). Patient should
be provided with food, drink, nursing, and relief from
pain until death.
 Suicide: include assisted suicide and physician’s assisted
 Murder. "take not life which Allah has made sacred" Qur’an 6:151.
Principles of Medical Ethics

 Necessity overrides prohibition (insulin from pork,

medications with alcohol).
 Remove harm at every cost if possible (quit smoking, risk
factors, disease therapy).
 Accept the lesser of two harms if both cannot be avoided
(abortion in risk to the pregnant woman).
 Public interest overrides individual interest (blood
and organ donation).
Female Modesty
 Dress: Provide a long-sleeved gown or allow to wear her own
 Examination: exposure of the patient’s body parts should be
limited to the minimum necessary.
 Sex: sensitivity when asking a single, widow or a divorced
about sexual habits.
 Respect privacy and do not touch while talking.
 Should not be placed in mixed rooms.
 Avoid eye contact and shaking hands to prevent unnecessary
 Result of Divine Will or a spiritual trial (not a product of
a carcinogen or risk behavior).
 Cancer is often referred to as “that disease” followed by
“God keep it away”.
 Cancer kept confidential, fear that it may affect their
daughters marriage.
 Pain: analgesic to prevent suffering include morphine is
allowed and recommended. Suffering delete sins.
Palliative Care
 When death is inevitable, Islam directs that the patient
be allowed to die without heroic measures.
 Muslims disapprove of any medical care that may hasten
the death of a patient.
 Muslims prefer to die at home if possible with the family
providing comprehensive physical and spiritual support.
 Death is not prepared for with prior funeral
arrangements and viewed as an interference in God’s
 Death definition: when spirit leave’s the body.

 Death is Inevitable: “ Every soul shall have a taste of death: In the end to
Us shall you be brought back." Qur’an 29:57

 The dying person: should sit up or lie with their face

towards Mecca. Ideally one should die with the
Declaration of Faith on the lips (Shahada).
 When death occur: eyes should be closed; all connected
tubes removed; all limbs flexed and the body
After Death
 Washing and burying the body as soon as possible (same
day). On the right side, facing Mecca.
 Respect for the body and prayers over the dead.
 Recitation of the whole Quran if possible.
 Mourning should not be excessive, as this would disturb
the dead as well as show lack of acceptance of God’s will
and purpose regarding death.
Funeral &
Mourning Period
 Funeral is simple and every human is equal.
 Deceased buried in a white shroud (men 3 pieces, women
5 pieces) without a coffin. Islam forbids cremation.
 Women are not allowed to attend the funeral, non-
Muslim men may attend.
 Mourning period 3 days. Wife mourn her husband 4
months and 10 days. She is not to remarry, leave her
home, or wear decorative clothing. Pregnant widow may
remarry 42 days after childbirth.
Life After Death
 Angels visit the dead in grave during the first night.
 Believers are comfortable waiting till judgment day.
 Judgement Day: resurrection of bodies. The good cross to
Paradise, The bad fall off into Hell.
 Child is regarded sinless until the age of maturity. The
soul /spirit of the child is automatically transferred to
Family Duties
After Death
 Payment of Funeral expenses.
 Payment of his/her debts.
 Execution of his/her will.
 Distribution of the remaining estate.
Spiritual History

 Ask: About life & death meaning.

 Observe: Dressing, praying, reading
 Listen: Reactions, answers, remarks
Barriers of Spiritual
History and Therapy
 Lack of time.
 Lack of training.
 Discomfort with the subject.
 Fear of activity outside area of expertise.
 Lack of interest or awareness.
Final Words
 Listen to patient and family.
 Demonstrate sensitivity.
 Respect Patient’s Values and Beliefs.
 Remain Flexible.
 Avoid Speculation.
 Respond to Who, What, Where, When?
 Provide Reassurance.
Al-Taj for Health and
Mission: health promotion by raising
awareness for prevention, early detection
and improve management and outcome of
cancer and diabetes in the Arab sector,

Tel/Fax +972-4-6747737 altaj@013.net

“Palliative Care

“Diabetes Mellitus
– the Era Plague
Breast Cancer

Palliative Care