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MODULE 2

ADVANCED APPLICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCTIVITY TOOLS


Introduction to Applied Productivity Tools
Productivity Tools
• Productivity software is a type of application programs that help
users produce outputs such as documents, databases, graphs,
worksheets and presentations.
• Many productivity applications are intended for business use. There
are some that are used in schools and universities for research and
assignments.
• Examples of office productivity software include word processors,
database management systems (DBMS), graphics software and
spreadsheet applications.
Introduction to Applied Productivity Tools
Office Suite
• A software suite, also called an application suite or productivity suite,
is two or more software applications bundled and sold together.

• For example, in the corporate office environment, Microsoft Office is


a standard suite of office automation software applications that
includes Microsoft Word, Outlook, Excel, Access, OneNote and
PowerPoint.
Introduction to Applied Productivity Tools
Benefits of Software Suites
• The biggest benefit of using a software suite of applications is the
compatibility and integration between them.
• The software applications in a suite are designed to work with one
another, making it easier for users to move work product between
them.
• Another benefit of software suites is reduced cost.
• The software suite bundle of applications is generally priced far less
than it would cost to buy each separately.
Introduction to Applied Productivity Tools
Popular Software Suites
Some of the more widely known and used business and design
software suites include:
• Microsoft Office 365
• Adobe Creative Suite or Cloud
• Apache OpenOffice
• iWork
• Google Docs
2.1 Word Processors
• A word processor is a software application that involves composition,
modification, and printing of documents.
• Typical features of a modern word processor include font application,
spell checking, grammar checking, a built-in thesaurus, automatic text
correction, Web integration, and HTML exporting, among others.
2.1 Word Processors
• Consider the video below for the brief introduction to word
processors.
2.1 Word Processors
Word Processing Compared to Using a Typewriter
Although the typewriter is the fastest way of having a printed
document, there are several disadvantages incorporated into it:
• You will not be able to make changes without either retyping the
entire document, use liquid eraser to cover up the mistake, or simply
overtype the characters inside.
• There are cases when the ribbon from the typewriter needs to be
replaced. This turned out to be messy and may result to having untidy
documents.
2.1 Word Processors
Word Processing Compared to Using a Typewriter
• Mechanical typewriters only have a single font for formatting.
• Typewriters do not have spell checkers.
• Some keys get stuck when they are often pressed too hard.
• No reproduction available for the same document; what you need to
do is go to a photocopier to have a new copy of the document.
2.1.1 History of Word Processors
• The first major advance from manual writing as far as the individual
was concerned was the typewriter.
• Henry Mill, an English engineer of the early eighteenth century, is
credited with its invention. He was an English inventor who patented
the first typewriter in 1714.
• The fact that almost nothing is known about his early version today is
evidence of its lack of success. The evolution of typewriters up to a
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) typewriter is seen in the
table below.
2.1.1 History of Word Processors
Year Contribution
Christopher Latham Sholes, with the assistance of two colleagues, invented
1867
the first successful manual typewriter.
The typewriter began to be marketed commercially, rather improbably by a
1874
gun manufacturing company, E. Remington and Sons.
IBM introduced the Selectric typewriter, which replaced the standard
movable carriage and individual typestrikers with a revolving typeball. With
1961
the same year, it also introduced word processing as a definite idea and
concept.
Stephen Bernard Dorsey, Founder and President of Canadian company
1972 Automatic Electronic Systems (AES), introduced the world’s first
programmable word processor with a video screen.
2.1.1 History of Word Processors
Year Contribution
Electric Pencil, released in December, was the first word processor software
1976 for microcomputers. Some programs were modeled after particular
dedicated WP hardware.
Word processing is now "one of the most common general applications for
1977
personal computers."
Developed by Apple, AppleWriter was the first popular PC word processing
1979
program.
MacWrite, Microsoft Word and other word processing programs for the bit-
mapped Apple Macintosh screen were probably the first true WYSIWYG
1984
word processors to become known to many people until the introduction of
Microsoft Windows.
2.1.2 Features of Standard Word Processors
Basic Features
The following are the basic features for standard word processors:
• insert text
• delete text
• cut and paste
• copy
• undo and redo
• page size and margins
• search and replace
• word wrap
• print
2.1.2 Features of Standard Word Processors
Advanced Features
• file management
• font specifications
• footnotes and cross-references
• graphics
• headers, footers, and page numbering
• layout
• macros
2.1.2 Features of Standard Word Processors
Advanced Features
• merges
• spell checker
• tables of contents and indexes
• thesaurus
• windows
• WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
Text Input
Typically, text is entered into the word processor from a keyboard.
Other input methods include:
• Copying text from other applications (such as from hypertext markup
language [HTML] documents, e-mail messages, or online
encyclopedias) and pasting it into a word-processing document
• Scanning printed documents and using optical-character-recognition
(OCR) software to convert the scanned documents into text
characters
• Using voice-recognition software to convert spoken words into text
characters
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
Text manipulation
• Text manipulation refers to the "processing" part of word processing.
Word processors provide easy methods of deleting, inserting,
copying, and moving individual characters, words, phrases, and
paragraphs—even entire pages of information—with a few clicks of a
mouse button or with such keyboard shortcuts as Ctrl-C to copy, Ctrl-
X to cut, and Ctrl-V to paste or insert text.
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
Text can be automatically checked for spelling and for conformance
to basic grammatical principles as the text is entered and edited.
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
The find-and-replace feature in a word processor allows the
user to search for every occurrence of a particular character,
word, or phrase within a document.
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
Text Formatting
• Word-processing software typically includes "wizards" or "help"
features to provide automated formatting of common business
documents.
• The most-common formatting tasks are typically performed by the
user as a document is created.
• Individual character and word formatting includes selection of type
size, type style, and typeface. Size is measured in points, a unit of
measure in which 72 points make up an inch.
• Type styles are easily selected using keyboard shortcuts or by
selecting them from the basic font menu.
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
• Page and overall-document formatting includes setting margins, creating columns
like those used in a newspaper or newsletter, and creating headers and footers
(information such as the page number or a chapter title that is repeated at the
top or bottom of each page of a document) like the one shown below.
2.1.2.1 Essential Word Processing Features
Text Output
• printing a document on paper is the most common output method;
• other output methods include faxing a document directly from the
word processor by use of a computer modem, sending the document
to another person by e-mail, and converting the word-processing
document to various other electronic formats for online viewing or
for eventual printing from other applications.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
• Although most word-processing users tend to learn and use primarily
the basic word-processing features, numerous more-advanced
features are available in most word processors to make word
processing much easier to complete in less time.
• Some of the more-common advanced word-processing features and
functions are described briefly below:
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
Styles
• Styles are user-created formatting commands that allow great control
over repetitive formatting structures within a document.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
Macros and Merging
• Macros are stored keystrokes, or sets of editing and formatting
commands, that can be replayed whenever needed. Macros can
boost productivity and take much of the tedium out of repetitive
word-processing tasks.
• Merging is the process of using lists of such information as names,
addresses, phone numbers, product descriptions or model numbers,
and so on to fill in designated fields or blanks in documents to create
mass mailings, address labels, directories, and catalogs.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
Version Control
• Version-control features allow a user to track the various stages of
editing that a document may pass through, including versions created
by multiple users involved in the creation and editing of a document.

Automatic References and Indexes


• Documents that include tables of contents, cross-references, indexes,
footnotes, endnotes, and captions will benefit from the capability of a
word processor to automatically generate and format these items.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
1. headers / footers
• Headers and footers are typically used in multiple-page documents to
display descriptive information. In addition to page numbers, a
header or footer can contain information such as:
• the document name
• the date and/or time you created or revised the document
• an author name
• a graphic
• a draft or revision number.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
2. endnote / footnote
• A footnote is a term used to describe additional information found at
the bottom of a page.
• An endnote is additional information or credits given at the end of
the document instead of at the bottom of each page.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
Footnote Endnote
When your readers want to look at the information in a When readers want to look at the information in a
footnote, they simply have to look at the bottom of the specific endnote as they read, they must go to the end
page. of your research paper.
Your readers have instant access to the citation or a If you use endnotes that re-number within each chapter
supplemental thought, idea or concept that is closely or section, you must remember which corresponding
related to the material in which the footnote appears. number goes along with that number in each chapter.
Your footnotes are printed on each page when you print
Endnotes require a separate page when printed.
your research paper; no additional printing is necessary.
When you have a higher number of footnotes on a
single page, they can make your paper appear cluttered
Endnotes are not as distracting and do not clutter the
or difficult to read; also, if the information in some
pages of your paper.
footnotes is too lengthy, the footnotes may dominate
the page and distract from your paper.
Footnotes are distributed throughout all the pages that
Endnotes let your readers look over and digest citations
may require an extra effort if the user wants to group all
and notes as a whole since they are all in one place.
citations as a whole.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
3. Index
• An index lists the terms and topics that are discussed in a document,
along with the pages that they appear on.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
4. Table of Contents
• This is a feature of a word processor that lets one contain in a single
page all the list of headings and subheadings for the entire document
together with the page where they are located.
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
2.1.2.2 Advanced Features for Word
Processors
Desktop-Publishing Capabilities
• Graphical images from clip-art collections, digital photographs, and
scanned images, and drawings created with graphics programs, can
be integrated easily into word-processing documents.

• Professional-looking documents such as newsletters, advertisements,


annual reports, brochures, and business cards can be designed with
most modern word-processing software.
2.1.2.3 Creating Documents with Available
Templates
• Word processors may be used not only in creating documents needed
in school or office, but also can be used to create professional-looking
documents such as newsletters, advertisements, business cards, etc.
• The types of document that usually come with a template are as
follows:
1. Newsletters
• Shortened form of newspaper and informational letter, a newsletter is
a small publication (as a leaflet or newspaper) containing news of
interest chiefly to a special group.
2.1.2.3 Creating Documents with Available
Templates
2. Advertisements
• An advertisement is a paid, non-personal, public communication
about causes, goods and services, ideas, organizations, people, and
places, through means such as direct mail, telephone, print, radio,
television, and internet.
a. Flyers
b. Brochures
c. Outdoor Mockup / Billboards
2.1.2.3 Creating Documents with Available
Templates
3. Certificates
• This type of document is provided as a prize for something earned by
winning a contest or getting an achievement. For academic
qualifications, a document that certifies that a person has received
specific education or has passed a test or series of tests.
2.1.2.3 Creating Documents with Available
Templates
4. Résumé
• A résumé is a document used by job seekers to help provide a
summary of their skills, abilities and accomplishments.
• In other words, a résumé is typically a short and quick way for a job
seeker to introduce themselves to a potential employer (In North
America a résumé should not be confused with a curriculum vitae or
CV).
2.1.2.3 Creating Documents with Available
Templates
5. Letters
• Formal letters may also be created using word processors. A letter
may be, but not limited to, any of the following:
• cover letter
• letter of introduction
• resignation letter
• internal application
• student reference
2.1.3 Examples of Word Processing Software
1. Microsoft Word
• When referring to a word processor, Winword, Word or MS Word is
short for Microsoft Word and also sometimes used as an abbreviation
for Microsoft WordPad.
• Its native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx filename
extension.
• Among built-in spell checker, a thesaurus, a dictionary, and utilities
for manipulating and editing text, Microsoft Word also has macros,
templates, and WordArt, bullets and numbering lists, password
protection, and auto-summarize feature.
2.1.3 Examples of Word Processing Software
2. Google Docs
• Google Docs is an online word processor program capable of almost
everything a typical word processor like Microsoft Word is capable of
doing without having to download any software.
• Features include text formatting, ability to insert images, select from
dozens of templates, and other media, and collaborative editing for
sharing between computers, devices, and other users.
• Supported file types: .doc, .docx, .docm .dot, .dotx, .dotm, .html, .txt,
.rtf, .odt
2.1.3 Examples of Word Processing Software
3. OpenOffice Writer
• Writer is a software under Apache OpenOffice that is simple for a
quick memo, yet capable of creating complete books with contents,
diagrams, indexes. etc.
• It has autocorrect and autocomplete features, text frames and linking,
multi-page display, and wizards to help produce professional
documents.
• Standard format is .odt and can be accessed from any OpenDocument
compliant software.
2.1.3 Examples of Word Processing Software
4. LibreOffice Writer
• LibreOffice Writer is a word processor and publishing tool similar to
Microsoft Office Word and Corel WordPerfect.
• Writer easily reads Microsoft Word documents (.docx, .doc), and you
can also save your work in Microsoft Word format.
• Text frames and linking give you the power to tackle desktop
publishing tasks for newsletters, flyers and much more, with layouts
just like you want them to be.
2.1.3 Examples of Word Processing Software
5. Corel WordPerfect
• WordPerfect (WP) is a word processing application owned by Corel
with a long history on multiple personal computer platforms.
• The program was originally developed under contract at Brigham
Young University for use on a Data General minicomputer in 1979.
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
• Placing an image helps in providing a better visual of the content
being discussed in the document and usually makes the content
become interesting and appealing to read.
• Images may be taken from the following methods:
a. a file stored from the personal computer to be copied from an open
image handling tool, or to directly insert it into the processor. This
process is also called embedding an image.
b. a link to the location of the image file stored locally or remotely
(from a network drive)
c. a link accessed from the Internet
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
Advantages / Link to a local or remote
Embedding an Image Link to an Internet site
Disadvantages location
Smaller because only
Larger because the image is Smaller because only the link is
Document Size the link is stored in the
directly placed inside. stored in the document
document
If the same image is pasted in
Modifications done on
separate documents,
the image will be Modifications done on the image
modifying one from the first
Image Modification reflected to all the will be reflected to all the
document will not have an
documents that has link documents that has link to it
effect on the other
to it
document.
Proper location handling
Images will be permanently
of image should be Internet access is necessary in
inserted in the document
Mode of Access considered when allowing the image to be
wherever the document is
document/image is displayed.
stored or accessed.
stored elsewhere
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
Modifying an Image
• Picture formats may vary depending on the characteristics selected.
The following are some of the included formatting styles that the user
may implement on an image:
a. Crop
• This feature is used to remove a portion of an image.
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
b. Resize
• Resizing involves changing the height and/or length of an image. The
image may be shrunk to save space for images that are too big,
or enlarged to make the image more visible or to give emphasis to
some parts of it.
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
c. Rotate/Flip
• Rotating an image involves changing its orientation in a clockwise or
counter-clockwise manner.
• This may be done by either choosing the options for rotation in the
toolbar or dragging the rotation handle present on the image upon
selection.
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
2.1.4 Integrating images and external material
4. Text Wrapping
• There are situations when the image is hard to position within the
document. There is a feature for word processors known as text
wrapping which allows positioning of the picture relative to the page
and text. By default, an image is in line with the text.
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
• As defined in the Cambridge Dictionary Online, "Mail merging is the
use of a computer to produce many copies of a letter, each copy with
a different name and address stored on file, or a computer program
that does this." It involves merging a main document with a data
source.

A main document contains the text and other items that remain the
same in each label. A data source contains the information that
changes in each label, such as the name and address of each
recipient.
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
Data Source
• The data source contains the information that can vary in each label,
such as a destination address. Here are few examples of data sources
you can use for mail merge in word processors.
• Spreadsheet
• Mailing Software Contact List
• Apple Contacts List
• Database
• Text files
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
Envelope
• When you have bulk mail to send to people on your mailing list, you
can use mail merge to create a batch of addressed envelopes.
• The advantage of using a word processor is that you can directly print
a copy of it and fold it out to be an envelope.
• Each envelope will contain an address in your mailing list. You can also
create and print envelopes without using mail merge.
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
Labels
• The following are the documents usually involved in creating and
printing labels using the mail merge process:
• Your main document
This is the document you use to set up the layout of the labels in the
mail merge.
• Your mailing list
It's a file that contains the addresses to be printed on the labels.
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
Steps for Mail Merging
• Mail merging requires the given steps below:
• Creating a Main Document/Template.
• Creating a Data Source.
• Defining the Merge Fields in main document.
• Merging the Data with the main document.
• Saving/Exporting.
2.1.5 Mail Merging and Label Generation
Steps for Label Generation
• Setting up the Mailing List
• Prepare the main document for the labels
• Link the mailing list to your labels.
• Add the addresses to your labels.
• Preview and print the labels.
• Save your labels document.
2.2 Spreadsheets
• A spreadsheet is an application designed for managing and organizing
the data in tabular format.
• This type of document lets users arrange data in rows and columns of
a grid, allowing them to be manipulated and used in calculations.
• Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of
formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on
the contents of other cells.
• Spreadsheets use formulas to process data and perform integrated
calculations. They're primarily used in business for financial
statements, but are also commonly used for production of breakdown
analyses and graphs.
2.2 Spreadsheets
The video below discusses additional information for spreadsheets
including their uses and market shares for different types of
spreadsheet applications.
2.2.1 History of Spreadsheets
There are many other spreadsheet applications in the market today;
however, Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel continue to be the most
popular.
2.2.1 History of Spreadsheets
Year Contribution
Professor Richard Mattessich pioneered the development of computerized
speadsheets for use in business accounting. Mattessich's work and that of
1961
other developers of spreadsheets on mainframe computers probably had
little positive influence on Bricklin and Frankston.
Dan Bricklin had programmed the first working prototype of his concept in
1978 integer basic. The program helped users input and manipulate a matrix of
five columns and 20 rows.
Daniel Fylstra, founding Associate Editor of Byte Magazine, joined Bricklin
and Frankston in developing VisiCalc. Fylstra and his firm Personal Software
1979 (later renamed VisiCorp) began marketing "VisiCalc" with a teaser ad in Byte
Magazine. The name "VisiCalc" is a compressed form of the phrase "visible
calculator".
2.2.1 History of Spreadsheets
2.2.1 History of Spreadsheets
Year Contribution
Mitch Kapor developed Lotus and his spreadsheet program quickly became
1983
the new industry spreadsheet standard.
Excel was originally written for the 512K Apple Macintosh. Excel was one of
1984 the first spreadsheets to use a graphical interface with pull down menus
and a point and click capability using a mouse pointing device.
Excel was on the market, being the flagship product for Windows 3.0. It was
1989
the only spreadsheet development for a quite a few years.
IBM acquired Lotus Development and Microsoft Excel is the spreadsheet
1995
market leader.
2.2.1 History of Spreadsheets
2.2.2 Features of Spreadsheets
Visual Design
• Spreadsheets allow you to lay figures out on a grid, calculating and
manipulating them visually. Often, this may result in you being able to
process the information more quickly.
Automatic Calculations
• Spreadsheet software gives you the ability to enter mathematical
formulas ranging from simple arithmetic to complex statistics.
2.2.2 Features of Spreadsheets
Dynamic Updates
• In addition to the standard method of entering data in a spreadsheet
-- typing numbers in cells -- you can also create a cell with a value
generated dynamically based on other cells. Any time you base the
value of one cell on the value of other cells, the value of one cell
updates automatically when the other is changed.
Data Analysis
• Most spreadsheet software can automatically create graphs and
charts from your data, giving you different ways of comparing and
analyzing information.
2.2.3 How spreadsheets work
Each worksheet appears as a grid, in which each row is represented by a
number and each column is represented by a letter ascending
alphabetically from left to right. The spaces that hold items of data are
called cells. Rows and columns are labeled to give each cell a cell address
or reference.
2.2.3 How spreadsheets work
It is also possible to refer to a range of cells collectively. This is mostly
done when you want to include a range of values in an operation, say
the sum or average of the selected values.
2.2.3 How spreadsheets work
2.2.3.1 Formulas under Spreadsheets
• A spreadsheet can also be set up with an equation to perform
involving a set of data. This is accomplished by using formulas.
• Formulas in a spreadsheet are generally math equations and can be
tailored to a specific set of data. The formulas are formed by telling
the spreadsheet program what cells to use when calculating the
equation.
• The equal sign (=) is used to start up an equation.
2.2.3.1 Formulas under Spreadsheets
Arithmetic operators
• The arithmetic operators, in order of precedence, are:
^ Exponentiation
- Negation
*/ Multiplication, division
+- Addition, subtraction
• The order of precedence indicates which will be computed first.
2.2.3.1 Formulas under Spreadsheets
2.2.3.1 Formulas under Spreadsheets
Relational operators
• Relational operators compare two numbers or two strings. The result
is a logical value expressed as a number, either 1 (=TRUE), or 0
(=FALSE). The relational operators, in order of precedence, are:
= Equality
<> Inequality
< Less than
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to
2.2.3.2 Spreadsheet Functions
• A function is a standard operation used to perform common tasks. It
involves using formulas with reserved words.
• Spreadsheet function parameters can be of the following formats:
• numbers
• cell and range references
• other functions
• text strings which should be enclosed in quotation marks
• dates and times
• logical values (TRUE, FALSE)
• error values.
2.2.3.2 Spreadsheet Functions
• Multiple parameters may be included in one function, but each
parameter should be separated by commas. Also, arithmetic
operators can be used within parameters. The examples below show
the list of examples on possible usage of the SQRT and SUM function.
• SQRT(9)
• SQRT(B4)
• SQRT(7-D4)
• SUM(A9:A36)
2.2.3.2 Spreadsheet Functions
• Let us consider the functions considered to be used frequently in
spreadsheets:
• SUM()
• VLOOKUP()
• MAX() and MIN()
• ROUND()
• NOW()
• SQRT()
2.2.3.2 Spreadsheet Functions
Mathematical functions
• ABS(x) Absolute value function
• ALOGIT(l) Antilogarithmic function
• CEIL(x) Rounds x up
• E() Euler's number
• EXP(x) Natural exponential function
• FLOOR(x) Rounds x down
• INT(x) Integer value function
• LN(x) Natural logarithm function
• LOG(x) Logarithm function
2.2.3.2 Spreadsheet Functions
Mathematical functions
• LOGIT(p) Logit function
• MOD(x,d) Modulo function
• POWER(x,p) Power function
• RAND(x) Random number function (Uniform distribution)
• RANDNORM(m,s) Random number function (Normal distribution)
• ROUND(x,n) Rounds the number x to n digits
• SIGN(x) Sign value
• TRUNC(x) Truncates the number x by removing the fractional part
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
• A spreadsheet may be able to handle not only a series of arithmetic
operations but also a set of complex functions and formulas to arrive
at the expected result.
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
VLOOKUP Function
The VLOOKUP formula has four components:
• Lookup_value
• Table_array
• Col_index_num
• Range_lookup
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
Conditional Functions
• A spreadsheet evaluates the source against the criteria, and returns a
value if the logical test is “true” and a different value for “false”.
• The elements “value_if_true” and “value_if_false” may be a static
value or another formula.
• Up to 7 functions may be nested to create some very elaborate tests.
• If, Countif, and Sumif perform the logical test using single criteria.
Countifs, and Sumifs perform the logical test on a range of cells that
meet multiple criteria.
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
• IF function is straightforward. The reference cell is tested against
criteria and will return a value or perform another function if the test
returns true or false.
• Syntax: IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
• In this example, we are testing against the width of a book. If the
width is under .375 in (3/8 in), the book requires a pamphlet binding
(pam). If the width were equal or over .375 in, the book would
require library binding (LB).
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
Array formulas
• A single array formula can perform thousands of calculations and
replace hundreds of usual formulas.
• Supposing you have 2 columns of numbers, column A and B. And you
want to know how many times column B is greater than or equal to
column A when a value in column B is greater than 0. This task
requires comparing two ranges and you can do this by using the
following array formula:
=SUM((B2:B10>=A2:A10) * (B2:B10>0))
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
Statistical functions
Average Function (Mean)
• One of the most used statistical functions is Mean. Mean is simply the
average of all the data, so we can simply use the Average function
and select the range which needs to be averaged.
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
Statistical functions
Median
• Median is a function which is used to find the middle number in a
given range of numbers. In spreadsheet, you can simply use the
Median function and select the range and you will find your median.
Mode
• Mode helps you to find out the value that occurs most number of
times. To find the most occurring value, use the MODE function and
select the range you want to find the mode of.
2.2.3.3 Advanced and complex formulas and
computations
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
• When a spreadsheet contains a set of data organized within
worksheets, you can represent this data in a form of a chart. This will
allow users to view data in a manner easy to understand. Spreadsheet
programs offer automated tools for transforming data sets into
graphs and charts.
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
Parts of a Graph
• All graphs have different parts that enhances the way people may
understand the illustration:
• Title
• Labels
• Scale
• Key/Legend
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
Different Types of Graph
• We have different types of charts that user may be able to use
depending on the type of data to be represented or the manner on
how the user should present them
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
1. Pie chart
• A pie chart is a circular type of chart wherein data are represented by
slices. It is generally used to show percentage or proportional data
and usually the percentage represented by each category is provided
next to the corresponding slice of pie.
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
2. Bar chart
• A bar graph is a type of representation where each data is
represented by either a horizontal or vertical bar.
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
3. Line graph
• A line graph is a type of graph where the corresponding data is
represented by dots that are interconnected by a line.
2.2.4 Charts and Graphs
4. Scatter chart
• Scatter charts are almost similar with line graphs except that the dots
are not connected with each other. This type of chart is best used to
show the correlation of variables.
2.3 Presentation program
• Presentation software (sometimes called "presentation graphics") is a
category of application program used to create sequences of words
and pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public
presentation of information.
• Presentation software can be divided into business presentation
software and more general multimedia authoring tools
• Business presentation software emphasizes ease- and quickness-of-learning
and use.
• Multimedia authoring software enables you to create a more sophisticated
presentation that includes audio and video sequences.
2.3 Presentation program
• There are common uses for this type of software including, but not
limited to, the following:
• teaching a new or complex concept to a group of students
• announcing the launch a new product or service campaign to employees
• training employees on key concepts or new policies
• presenting a proposal to a group
• presenting a periodic evaluation
• Presentation software makes the ability to communicate messages to
a group of people much simpler than other delivery methods. The
ability to combine text and graphics makes the presentation visually
enticing.
• A sample video for a presentation using PowToon is shown below.
Click the image to play the video.
2.3.1 History of Presentation Software
Year Contribution
The first commercial computer software specifically intended for creating
1979 WYSIWYG presentations was developed at Hewlett Packard and called
BRUNO and later Hpickles are crunchyP-Draw.
The first software displaying a presentation on a personal computer screen
1982 was VCN ExecuVision, developed in 1982. This program allowed users to
choose from a library of images to accompany the text of their presentation.

VCN ExecuVision was the first presentation program for the personal
1983 computer. This program allowed users the ability to manipulate graphics and
text not just for business data, but for all communication purposes.
2.3.1 History of Presentation Software
Year Contribution
Microsoft PowerPoint was developed by Bob Gaskins, a former Berkeley
1984 Ph.D. student who envisioned an easy-to-use presentation program that
would manipulate a string of slides.
PowerPoint was called "Presenter" initially by Gaskins, but was changed to
PowerPoint to avoid a trademark problem. This application was the first
1987 product to attract strategic venture capital from Apple and later the first
significant acquisition made by Microsoft. Forethought and PowerPoint
were purchased by Microsoft Corporation for $14 million
PowerPoint 3.0 was created, which added output of live video color
1992 slideshows including slide transitions, builds, animations, and synchronized
sound and video clips.
2.3.2 Features of Presentation Program
The following are the standard features of a presentation program:
• Slides
• Layout
• Templates
• Animation effects
• Slide master
• Transitions
• Slide notes
2.3.2.1 Slides and Layouts
• A slide is considered the initial page for anything that is to be
presented. Any text, images, and videos may be placed inside it and
be shown during the presentation. The slides are shown one by one
during the presentation, may it be in an animated manner or
by manual transition based from the click/key input of the presenter.
• A layout is simply a style defined within a slide. This includes
positioning titles, images and block of texts to make it more
presentable to the user.
2.3.2.1 Slides and Layouts
1. Blank 2. Title with Content
2.3.2.1 Slides and Layouts
3. Title 4. Two Content
2.3.2.2 Animation
In presenting slides, one may be able to add animation effects.
Animation has the following benefits:
• makes a presentation software more dynamic
• helps the presenter to focus on important points
• aids in controlling the flow of information
• helps in increasing viewer interest in one's presentation.
2.3.2.2 Animation
1. Entrance
2.3.2.2 Animation
2. Exit
2.3.2.2 Animation
3. Motion Paths
2.3.2.2 Animation
4. Emphasis
2.3.2.3 Slide Master
• A slide master is the top slide in a hierarchy of slides that store
information about the theme and slide layouts of a presentation,
including the background, color, fonts, effects, placeholder sizes, and
positioning.
• Every presentation contains at least one slide master.
• The key benefit to modifying and using slide masters is that you can
make universal style changes to every slide in your presentation,
including ones added later to the presentation.
2.3.2.3 Slide Master
Using Slide Master view
• Whether you're making significant changes to your slides or just a few
small tweaks, Slide Master view can help you create a consistent,
professional presentation without a lot of effort. Here are some of its
most common uses:
• Modify backgrounds
• Rearrange placeholders
• Customize text formatting
• Create unique slide layouts
2.3.2.3 Slide Master
2.3.2.4 Presenter view
You can view your speaker notes privately while delivering a
presentation on multiple monitors.
2.3.2.4 Presenter view
Besides the notes, the other things that the presenter can see are:

1. the current slide number


2. slide thumbnails, so that you select a certain slide if you wish to go
back or skip some slides
3. the time elapsed during the presentation
4. icons that can be clicked to execute an action.
2.3.2.4 Presenter view
Before the presenter can use this feature, some requirements must be
met first:
1. The computer that you are using should be able to support the use
of multiple monitors.
2. Proper configuration when setting up before the presentation. This is
usually done especially if you are to use a projector.
3. Verify if your application has its presenter view feature available and
is activated.
2.3.3 Hyperlinks in Presentation Software
• A hyperlink, or more commonly called a link, allows the viewer to
quickly access another screen on the computer by simply clicking on a
text entry or a graphic object.
• Hyperlinks in a presentation software can link to -
• another slide in the presentation
• another presentation file
• another slide in a different presentation
• a website
• an email address
• any other file on the computer
2.3.3 Hyperlinks in Presentation Software
Link to Another Presentation or Another File Type
• You can create a hyperlink to any file on your computer or network,
no matter what program was used to create the other file.
• There are two separate scenarios available during your slide show
presentation.
• If the hyperlink goes to another PowerPoint presentation, on click,
that presentation will simply open and be the active presentation on
screen.
• If the hyperlink is to a file created in another program, on click, the
file will open in its corresponding program. This will then be the
active program on screen.
2.3.3 Hyperlinks in Presentation Software
2.3.3 Hyperlinks in Presentation Software
Anatomy of a Link
• Anchor: This is the object that you click or hover upon to make the
interactivity happen. These may be any images, pictures, or any texts
that when clicked will allow you to proceed to the destination.
• Target (Destination): This is what the "anchor" is linked to.
• Link (Hyperlink): This is what connects the “anchor” with the
“target”.
2.3.3 Hyperlinks in Presentation Software
Screen Tip
• can be added to any hyperlink on a PowerPoint slide.
• When the viewer hovers the mouse over the hyperlink during the
slide show the screen tip will appear
• can be helpful to indicate additional information that the viewer may
need to know about the hyperlink.
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
• There are plenty of online options that work well from any computer
with a web browser, whether it's your desktop, a PC at work, or a
laptop on the go.
Advantages of using Online Presentation Programs
• free or low-cost
• data can be accessed anywhere whenever you need it for as long as
you are online
• files don't need to be carried around inside removable media devices
• it comes with different animations that normal programs from suites
do not have.
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
Examples of Online Presentation Programs
Prezi
• Prezi is a type of visual storytelling medium that connects presenters
more powerfully with their audiences and customers.
• Unlike slides, Prezis open, interactive canvas encourages conversation
and collaboration, making presentations more engaging, persuasive,
and memorable.
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
Google Slides
• familiar but simple and easy to use
• incorporates a professional look and feel along with some interesting and
dynamic transitions, images, presentation themes, and other tools that make it
fun and refreshing to use.
• allows you to collaborate in real time with other users, and everything is stored
on the web
• makes embedding your own images, charts, graphs, videos, or just about any
other type of multimedia relatively easy.
• can open, save, and convert PowerPoint files. Offline editing is part of the
package, and best of all, it's completely free.
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
PowToon
• If you've seen animated infographics online, you might already have
an idea of what Powtoon can offer; it's perfect for creating video
presentations slightly more lively and charming than the standard
PowerPoint fare, with royalty-free music and eye-catching looks.
Emaze
• Emaze is another great online tool for creating presentations. It has a
rich UI, and lets you create great looking presentations in minutes. It
has a wide range of templates, many created by top designers, that
let you make stunning content. Emaze also has the option of creating
cool 3D presentations, which stand out from the rest.
2.3.4 Online Presentation Software
Haiku Deck
• It is a presentation software that is powered by Artificial Intelligence.
Haiku Deck lets you create instant presentations, with nearly zero
sweat.
• The point of Haiku Deck is to help make your storytelling simple and
fun. Haiku Deck was founded on the premise that simple, modern,
and elegant slide decks should be the norm, instead of overly dense,
difficult to read, and difficult to digest ones.

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