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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON TOOL

WEAR BY CHANGING THE CUTTING FLUID AS


JULIFLORA SEED OIL
ABSTRACT
Cutting fluids are used in machining for a variety of reasons
such as improving tool life, reducing work-piece thermal
deformation, improving surface finish. Mota and Machado
(1995) concluded that reducing cutting tool cost and
increased production can be achieved through the use of
appropriate cutting fluids. In this work soluble oil, water and
palm kernel oil were used as coolants in turning operations.
Tungsten carbide and HSS cutting tools were employed as
cutter with cutting speed of 355rpm. Turning was done under
dry condition and also using 3 coolants. Temperature and
Hardness values after each cut were recorded. The
microstructure of all the specimen was also done and
recorded
It was revealed that variation in the Hardness value of the
samples with progress in machining time is more with the use
of carbide tool compared to the HSS cutter .Samples cooled
with water exhibited the highest hardness value. Palm kernel
oil performed very well the specific functions of soluble oil as
cutting fluid which includes good chip formation, reduction of
heat generated and realization of a good surface finish The
analysis are shown in tabular and graphical form in chapters 3
and 4
KEYWORDS
1. juliflora seed oil
2. Cutting fluids,
3. Mechanical properties,
4. effect
5. Hss tool
6. Carbide tool
INTRODUCTION
Cutting fluids are used in metal machining for a
variety of reasons such as improving tool life,
reducing work piece thermal deformation, improving
surface finish and flushing away chips from the
cutting zone. In the 19th-century machining practice,
it was not uncommon to use plain water. This was a
simple practice used to keep the cutter tool cool,
regardless of whether or not it provided any
lubrication at the cutting edge-chip interface. When
one considers that high-speed steel (HSS) had not
been developed then, the need to cool the tool
becomes all the more apparent. (HSS retains its
hardness at high temperatures while other carbon
tool steels do not).
An improvement was soda water,
which better inhibited the rusting of machine slides.
These options are generally not used today because
better options are available. Lard was very popular in
the past. It is used less often today, because of the
wide variety of other options, but it is still a fine
option.
• Old machine shop training textbooks speak of using
red lead and white lead, often mixed into lard or lard oil
This practice has become obsolete because lead
• is hazardous to health, and excellent non-lead-
containing options are now available.
From the mid-20th century to the 1990s, 1, 1, 1-
trichloroethane was used as an additive to make some
cutting fluids more effective. In shop-floor slang, it was
referred to as "one-one-one". It has been phased out
because of its ozone-depleting and CNS-depressing properties

Metal cutting operations involve generation of heat


due to friction between the tool and the workpiece
and due to the energy lost during the deformation of
the material. The surrounding air independently is a
rather poor coolant for the cutting tool, because the
rate of heat transfer is low.
JULIFLORA OIL
Microwave pyrolysis is an efficient technique to valorize the abundantly
available Prosopis juliflora (PJF) biomass into fuel intermediates. In this
study, the effects of microwave power, susceptor, PJF particle size, PJF to
susceptor mass ratio, and initial mass of PJF on bio-oil, gas, and char
yields, composition of bio-oil, and energy recovery in bio-oil and char were
evaluated. Five different susceptors, namely, graphite, char, aluminum,
silicon carbide, and fly ash, an industry waste, were utilized. A high bio-oil
yield of 40 wt % with a heating value of 26 MJ kg–1was achieved with fly
ash at a microwave power of 560 W, PJF particle size of 2–4 mm, and PJF
(50 g)/fly ash composition of 100:1 (wt/wt). The bio-oil contained a
mixture of phenolic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons,
cyclopentanones, carboxylic acids, ketones, and furan derivatives. Nearly
51% deoxygenation of PJF was achieved with an atomic O/C ratio of 0.24 in
bio-oil. This work demonstrates that the yield and quality of bio-oil are
dependent on key parameters such as microwave power, biomass particle
size/composition, and type of suscepto
HSS AND CARBIDE TOOL
• HSS and CARBIDE is usually supplied in the T condition with a tensile strength
of 850/1000 N/mm2.

• HSS and CARBIDET steel is a popular grade of through-hardening alloy steel


due to its excellent machinability in the "T" condition. HSS and CARBIDET is
used in components such as gears, shafts, studs and bolts, its hardness is in
the range 248/302 HB. HSS and CARBIDET can be further surface-hardened to
create components with enhanced wear resistance by induction or nitriding
processing

817M40T - HSS and CARBIDET steel is a high tensile alloy steel renown for
its wear resistance properties and also where high strength properties are
required. HSS and CARBIDET is used in components subject to high stress
and with a large cross section. This can include aircraft, automotive and
general engineering applications for example propeller or gear shafts,
connecting rods, aircraft landing gear components
HSS TOOL IMAGE
CARBITE TOOL IMAGE
JULIFLORA OIL HSS TOOL CUTTING
FLUIDS TEST
CUTTING CUTTING SPEED TEMPERATURE
SPECIMEN TOOL FLUID SPEED
(RPM) AFTER
TURNING
(RPM)

1 HSS WATER

2 HSS DRY CUTTING

3 HSS JULIFLORA OIL


JULIFLORA OIL CARBIDE TOOL CUTTING
FLUIDS TEST

SPECIMEN CUTTING TOOL CUTTING SPEED TEMPERATURE


FLUID (RPM) AFTER
TURNING
(RPM)

1 CARBIDE WATER

2 CARBIDE DRY CUTTING

3 CARBIDE JULIFLORA OIL


ADVANTAGES OF USING CUTTING
FLUIDS
• Cools the work surface and tool
• Lubricates the interface between the work surface
and tool
• Flushes away some dust chippings, and swarf
• Reduces tendency for chip adhesion/pressure
welding to tool tip
• May improve resulting surface finish
• May increase tool life (see below)
• Allows higher cutting speeds
DISADVANTAGES IN USING CUTTING
FLUIDS

• For certain Machine tools- A costly engineering system is


required for applying the fluid
• The fluid used has to be prepared and after use, filtered for
re-use of disposed
• Some fluids have a health risk if not used correctly causing
problems such as dermititus
• Some cutting materials are affected by thermal shock e.g.
cemented carbides. Use of cutting fluids should be avoided
for these materials
APPLICATION

All machining process


REFERENCES
• 1. Adegbuyi P.A.O. (2003) “Indigenous Oil as
• cutting fluid” Engineering and Technology
• Research journal, volume 1 no 1,page 15-25,
• Faculty of Engineering, Technology andEnvironmental Sciences,
Lagos State
• University, Lagos, Nigeria

2. El Baradie M. A., (1996) “Cutting fluids part


1: Journal on characterisation of material
processing technology” page 786-787
• 3. Radoslav Raki A., Zlata Raki B. (2002) “The
influence of the metal working fluids on
machine tool failures” volume 252 no 5-6:
page 438-444
• 4. Srikant R.R. (2001): Department of industrial
production, college of engineering, Gitam,
Visakhapatnan, India.
• 5. Greeley M. H., Devor R.E, Kapoor S. G.,
Rajagopalan N (2004).. “The influence of
• fluid management policy and operational
changes on metal working fluid functionality.
Journal on manufacturing science
• engineering. volume 126.
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