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Free-Space Attenuation

propagation in free space.

• In this special case of line-of-sight (LOS) propagation there are

no obstructions due to the earth’s surface or other obstacles.

• We consider radiation from an isotropic antenna. This type of

antenna is completely omni-directional, radiating uniformly in

all directions.

1. The power of a transmitter that is radiated from an isotropic antenna

will have a uniform power density (power per unit area) in all

directions.

2. The power density at any distance from an isotropic antenna is

simply the transmitter power divided by the surface area of a sphere

(4πd2) at that distance.

3. If the BS antenna radiates isotropically, then the power density on the

surface is

PTX/(4πd2)

The receiver (MS) antenna has an “effective area” ARX. Then the

received power is given by

PRX(d) = ARX * PTX /(4πd2)=PTX ARX /(4πd2)

If the transmit antenna is not isotropic, then the energy density has to be

multiplied with the antenna gain Gb in the direction of the receive

antenna.

PRX(d) = Gb* PTX ARX /(4πd2)= (GbPTX )ARX /(4πd2)

• The product of transmit power and gain in the considered direction is also

known as Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP).

Gm =ARX 4π/ λ2

• PRX as a function of the distance d in free space, also known as Friis’ law:

The factor (4πd /λ) 2 is also known as the free space loss factor.

• The validity of Friis law is restricted to the far ﬁeld of the antenna –

i.e., the BS and MS antennas have to be at least one Rayleigh distance

apart.

deﬁned as:

• dR =2La2 / λ

• where La is the largest dimension of the antenna.

Friis law on a logarithmic scale

As most factors inﬂuencing the SNR enter in a multiplicative

way, it is convenient to write all the equations in a logarithmic

form – speciﬁcally, in dB. it is advantageous to write Friis’ law

on a logarithmic scale.

PRX(dB) = PTX(dB) +GTX(dB) +GRX(dB )+20log( λ /4πd)

In order to better point out the distance dependence, it is

advantageous to ﬁrst compute the received power at 1-m

distance:

example:

consider a base station transmitting to a mobile station in free space. the

following parameters relate to this communication system:

distance between base station and mobile station: 8000 m

transmitter frequency: 1.5 GHz

base station transmitting power, Pt = 10 W (10 dBw)

antenna gains are 8 dB and 0 dB for the base station and mobile station,

respectively.

calculate the received signal power at the mobile receiver

antenna

Example:

Consider a base station transmitting to a mobile station in free space. The

following parameters relate to this communication system:

Distance between base station and mobile station: 8000 m

Transmitter frequency: 1.5 GHz

Base station transmitting power, Pt = 10 W(10 dBW)

Antenna gains are 8 dB and 0 dB for the base station and mobile station,

respectively.

Total system losses: 8 dB

Calculate the received signal power at the mobile receiver antenna

Ground-reﬂected wave model

• Free-space propagation is encountered only in rare cases such as

satellite-to-satellite paths.

• In typical terrestrial paths, the signal is partially blocked and

attenuated due to urban clutter, trees, and other obstacles. Multipath

propagation also occurs due to reﬂection from the ground.

• Signals reﬂected from the ground are fundamentally no different than

any other reﬂected signal.

Ground-reﬂected wave model

• For many wireless applications in the 50 to 2000 MHz range, two

components of the space wave are of primary concern

1. Energy received by means of the direct wave, which travels a direct

path from the transmitter to the receiver.

2. Ground-reﬂected wave, which arrives at the receiver after being

reﬂected from the surface of the earth. This is commonly referred to

as the two-ray model.

• We assume that the base station and mobile station antenna heights, hb

and hm, are much smaller compared to their separation, d, and the

reflecting earth surface is flat.

• The received power at the antenna located at a distance, d, from the

transmitter, including other losses, L0.

where

Noise power spectral density (noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth) is

N0 = kT

antenna (Kelvin)

Thermal noise: The power spectral density of thermal noise depends on the

environmental temperature Te that the antenna “sees.”

Te= (Nf-1)T

Q. What is dBm? & prove that 1mW = 0dBm=-30dB

Hint: 1 mW is equal to 10e-3 watt.

P|dB = 10 log (1mW) = 10 log (10e-3 W) = - 30dB

P(dBm) = 10 ⋅ log10( P(mW) / 1mW)

P|dBm = 10 log (1 mW/1mW) = 10 log(1) = 0dBm

Q. prove that 1 watt is equal to 30dBm

1W = 1000mW = 30dBm

Q. Prove that 1dBm+1dB=2dBm

Q. Prove that 2dBm - 1dBm =1dB

Q. What is Noise power spectral density

Hint: noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth is N0 = kT

Q. Given that the SNR of wireless communications systems is 18dB,bandwith is

25kHz. Calculate the signal power of the system.

It is common to write logarithmic units (power P expressed in units of dBm is 10 log 10 (P/1mW)) :

N0 =−174dBm/Hz

This means that the noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth is −174dBm.

Pn = N0B

The noise power contained in bandwidth B is

−174+ 10log10(B)dBm

signal power PS:

PS =SNRmin +Pn

Link Budget

A link budget is the clearest and most intuitive way of computing the

required TX power. It tabulates all equations that connect the TX power

to the received SNR.

It has to be noted that the link budget gives only an approximation

(often a worst case estimate) for the total SNR, because some

interactions between different effects are not taken into account.

For distances d< dbreak, the received power is proportional to d−2.

lies between 3.5 and 4.5.

The received power is thus

PRX(d) = PRX(dbreak)( d/ dbreak)-n for d >dbreak

Consider a mobile radio system at 900-MHz carrier frequency, and with

25-kHz bandwidth, that is affected only by thermal noise (temperature of

the environment Te = 300K). Antenna gains at the TX and RX sides are 8

dB and −2dB,4 respectively. The TX power is 10 W. Losses in cables,

combiners, etc. at the TX are 2 dB. The noise figure of the RX is 7 dB and

the 3-dB bandwidth of the signal is 25 kHz. The required operating SNR is

18 dB and the desired range of coverage is 2 km. The breakpoint is at 10-m

distance; beyond that point, the path loss exponent is 3.8, and the fading

margin is 10 dB. What is the minimum RX power?

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