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Reflection, diffraction and scattering of radio wave

Free-Space Attenuation

• The most simple wave propagation case is that of a direct wave

propagation in free space.
• In this special case of line-of-sight (LOS) propagation there are
no obstructions due to the earth’s surface or other obstacles.
• We consider radiation from an isotropic antenna. This type of
antenna is completely omni-directional, radiating uniformly in
all directions.
1. The power of a transmitter that is radiated from an isotropic antenna
will have a uniform power density (power per unit area) in all
2. The power density at any distance from an isotropic antenna is
simply the transmitter power divided by the surface area of a sphere
(4πd2) at that distance.
3. If the BS antenna radiates isotropically, then the power density on the
surface is
The receiver (MS) antenna has an “effective area” ARX. Then the
received power is given by
PRX(d) = ARX * PTX /(4πd2)=PTX ARX /(4πd2)

If the transmit antenna is not isotropic, then the energy density has to be
multiplied with the antenna gain Gb in the direction of the receive
PRX(d) = Gb* PTX ARX /(4πd2)= (GbPTX )ARX /(4πd2)
• The product of transmit power and gain in the considered direction is also
known as Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP).

• There is a simple relationship between effective area and antenna gain

Gm =ARX 4π/ λ2
• PRX as a function of the distance d in free space, also known as Friis’ law:

PRX(d) = PTXGbGm (λ /4πd) 2

The factor (4πd /λ) 2 is also known as the free space loss factor.
• The validity of Friis law is restricted to the far field of the antenna –
i.e., the BS and MS antennas have to be at least one Rayleigh distance

• The Rayleigh distance (also known as the Fraunhofer distance) is

defined as:
• dR =2La2 / λ
• where La is the largest dimension of the antenna.

Compute the Rayleigh distance of a square antenna with 20-dB gain.

Friis law on a logarithmic scale
As most factors influencing the SNR enter in a multiplicative
way, it is convenient to write all the equations in a logarithmic
form – specifically, in dB. it is advantageous to write Friis’ law
on a logarithmic scale.
PRX(dB) = PTX(dB) +GTX(dB) +GRX(dB )+20log( λ /4πd)
In order to better point out the distance dependence, it is
advantageous to first compute the received power at 1-m

Prove: PRX(d) = PRX(1m)−20log(d)

consider a base station transmitting to a mobile station in free space. the
following parameters relate to this communication system:
distance between base station and mobile station: 8000 m
transmitter frequency: 1.5 GHz
base station transmitting power, Pt = 10 W (10 dBw)
antenna gains are 8 dB and 0 dB for the base station and mobile station,
calculate the received signal power at the mobile receiver
Consider a base station transmitting to a mobile station in free space. The
following parameters relate to this communication system:
Distance between base station and mobile station: 8000 m
Transmitter frequency: 1.5 GHz
Base station transmitting power, Pt = 10 W(10 dBW)
Antenna gains are 8 dB and 0 dB for the base station and mobile station,
Total system losses: 8 dB
Calculate the received signal power at the mobile receiver antenna
Ground-reflected wave model
• Free-space propagation is encountered only in rare cases such as
satellite-to-satellite paths.
• In typical terrestrial paths, the signal is partially blocked and
attenuated due to urban clutter, trees, and other obstacles. Multipath
propagation also occurs due to reflection from the ground.
• Signals reflected from the ground are fundamentally no different than
any other reflected signal.
Ground-reflected wave model
• For many wireless applications in the 50 to 2000 MHz range, two
components of the space wave are of primary concern
1. Energy received by means of the direct wave, which travels a direct
path from the transmitter to the receiver.
2. Ground-reflected wave, which arrives at the receiver after being
reflected from the surface of the earth. This is commonly referred to
as the two-ray model.
• We assume that the base station and mobile station antenna heights, hb
and hm, are much smaller compared to their separation, d, and the
reflecting earth surface is flat.
• The received power at the antenna located at a distance, d, from the
transmitter, including other losses, L0.

Noise power spectral density (noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth) is
N0 = kT

where k is Boltzmann’s constant, k =1.38·10−23 J/K, T=Temp of Mobile

antenna (Kelvin)
Thermal noise: The power spectral density of thermal noise depends on the
environmental temperature Te that the antenna “sees.”
Te= (Nf-1)T
Q. What is dBm? & prove that 1mW = 0dBm=-30dB
Hint: 1 mW is equal to 10e-3 watt.
P|dB = 10 log (1mW) = 10 log (10e-3 W) = - 30dB
P(dBm) = 10 ⋅ log10( P(mW) / 1mW)
P|dBm = 10 log (1 mW/1mW) = 10 log(1) = 0dBm
Q. prove that 1 watt is equal to 30dBm
1W = 1000mW = 30dBm
Q. Prove that 1dBm+1dB=2dBm
Q. Prove that 2dBm - 1dBm =1dB
Q. What is Noise power spectral density
Hint: noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth is N0 = kT
Q. Given that the SNR of wireless communications systems is 18dB,bandwith is
25kHz. Calculate the signal power of the system.
It is common to write logarithmic units (power P expressed in units of dBm is 10 log 10 (P/1mW)) :
N0 =−174dBm/Hz
This means that the noise power contained in a 1-Hz bandwidth is −174dBm.

The noise power contained in bandwidth B :

Pn = N0B

B is also called RX bandwidth (in units of Hz).

The noise power contained in bandwidth B is
−174+ 10log10(B)dBm
signal power PS:
PS =SNRmin +Pn
Link Budget
A link budget is the clearest and most intuitive way of computing the
required TX power. It tabulates all equations that connect the TX power
to the received SNR.
It has to be noted that the link budget gives only an approximation
(often a worst case estimate) for the total SNR, because some
interactions between different effects are not taken into account.
For distances d< dbreak, the received power is proportional to d−2.

Beyond that point, the power is proportional to d−n, where n typically

lies between 3.5 and 4.5.
The received power is thus
PRX(d) = PRX(dbreak)( d/ dbreak)-n for d >dbreak
Consider a mobile radio system at 900-MHz carrier frequency, and with
25-kHz bandwidth, that is affected only by thermal noise (temperature of
the environment Te = 300K). Antenna gains at the TX and RX sides are 8
dB and −2dB,4 respectively. The TX power is 10 W. Losses in cables,
combiners, etc. at the TX are 2 dB. The noise figure of the RX is 7 dB and
the 3-dB bandwidth of the signal is 25 kHz. The required operating SNR is
18 dB and the desired range of coverage is 2 km. The breakpoint is at 10-m
distance; beyond that point, the path loss exponent is 3.8, and the fading
margin is 10 dB. What is the minimum RX power?