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Coal Gasification Technology

and Syngas Production


Ruben Reyes
ChE379
Purpose/Outline
• Gasification technology
– Different types of gasifiers
– Products from gasification
• Syngas production, Gasifiers used for
IGCC power plants
• Conclusion
Coal Gasification Technologies
– Basic Overview of gasification
• Coal or other fuels
• Oxidation carefully controlled
• H2, CO2, CH4, other products
• H2 can be purified
• Ash/slag leftovers
– 3 types of gasifiers
• Moving bed
• Fluid Bed
• Entrained Flow
– Underground Coal Gasification
• Vertical wells and pathway creation
• Controlled retraction injection point
Above ground gasification
BGL gasifier (fixed
• Moving bed reactor (Lurgi bed, slagging)
– dry ash and BGL -
slagging)
– Counter-current flow of
coal and oxidizing blast
– Blast composed of air and
hot syngas, so low oxygen
consumption
– Operates on reactive
carbon sources
– Good heat transfer heats
the carbon source creating
methane and tar
– Post production cleaning
and scrubbing requires
greater energy use
Figure 1: BGL Gasifier
Above Ground Gasification
Winkler Gasifier (Fluid bed,
dry ash)
• Fluid-bed reactor (Winkler,
HTW, CFB – dry ash; KRW, U-
Gas – Agglomerating)
– Air fluidizes a bed and carbon
containing particles added
– Proper mixing of fuel and
oxidant provide good mass
transfer and heat transfer
– Fine particle will escape with
syngas and needs to be
cleaned
– Very good heat/mass transfer
so partially reacted carbon
may settle with ash
– Slagging will reduce
fluidization, so temp remains
below softening point for ash

Figure 2: Winkler Gasifier


Above Ground Gasification
Texaco Gasifier
• Entrained flow reactors (Shell, (entrained flow, slagging)
Texaco, E-gas, Noell, KT -
Slagging)
– Carbon source is made of very
fine particles in a liquid or slurry
for very good mass transfer
– Very little residence time
– Co-current flow with oxygen
where high temperatures can be
reached
– Low heat transfer means hot
exiting gas with no methane or tar,
but more oxygen required.
– High temperature and very small
carbon sources make it an ideal
process for coal gasification.
• High temperatures without
charring
• No agglomeration because of fine
particle size preparation

Figure 1: Texaco Gasifier


Underground Coal Gasification
• Vertical wells, soviet
technology
– H2 and O2 are injected and
ignited to create syngas, CO2
and methane
– Coal deposits do not allow for
transport of the gases from the
injection well to recovery well
very easily
– Closely spaced wells and
reverse combustion methods
are employed to create a
cavity between wells
– This process works, but
requires many wells to be
constructed
Figure 5: Current UGC
Underground Coal Gasification
• Controlled retraction injection
point from oil technology
(CRIP)
– The oil industry’s horizontal
drilling for production and
injection wells to deliver and
absorb syngas continuously
– Only one injection well, the
ignition continues through the
inseam as the injection wells
are retreated.
– The product is collected in a
product well
– Concerns about ground water
Figure 6: CRIP UGC
inhibit the use of UCG.
Syngas production and energy
industry
• CO2 removal
– Used for oil reclamation
– Can be injected back in ground
• Combined cycle
– Combustion turbine
– Heat used for generating steam
• Fuel cell uses
Conclusions
• There are many ways that carbon containing compounds may be gasified
• Coal gasification occurs best in entrained flow reactors such as the Texaco
gasifier
– The coal will not heat up as much and will not create methane and tar.
– The requirement for fine particles into the gasifier prevents agglomeration
• Underground coal gasification technology is present and used today but
with certain challenges
– Water contamination
– Impact on environment and land
• Potential benefits are many
– Syngas used in combined cycle energy production
– Hydrogen fuel cell use for energy production and transportation purposes
– Methane and hydrogen have applications in the chemical industry where they
can be used.
– Not mentioned, gasification is first step in coal liquefaction process.
– Coal gasification could reduce dependence on foreign oil
– CO2 sequestration
References
• Gasification reference shelf - images and photos. (n.d.). National Energy
Technology Laboratory. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from
http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/pubs/photo.htm
l
• Gasification Technology and R&D. (n.d.). U.S. Department of energy.
Retrieved November 20, 2007, from
http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/gasification/index.htm
• l Higman, C., & Van Der Burgt, M. (n.d.). Gasification. Elsevier. Retrieved
November 20, 2007, from Google Book Search database:
http://books.google.com.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/ books?id=ZUlRaUrX8IU
C&printsec=frontcover&dq=gasification&sig=Sxb9s5qmKK03xe9INbsiuoJw
wX8#PPP1,M1
• Underground Coal Gasification. (n.d.). World Coal Institute. Retrieved
November 20, 2007, from World Coal Institute Web site:
http://www.worldcoal.org/pages/content/index