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Nucleic Acids and

the Encoding of
Biological
Information

Chapter 3
Griffith’s Experiment

Virulent Nonvirulent
bacteria bacteria

Mouse dies of pneumonia. Mouse remains healthy.


Griffith’s Experiment

Killed Killed virulent


virulent and live
bacteria nonvirulent
bacteria

Mouse remains healthy. Mouse dies of pneumonia.


DNA is extracted from
Virulent bacteria (killed)
heat-killed virulent cells,
along with trace
amounts of RNA and
protein.

Avery,
Macleod, and
Nonvirulent
bacteria
McCarty’s
Experiment
Virulent and
nonvirulent Nonvirulent bacteria only
bacteria

The untreated extract can Only extracts treated with


transform nonvirulent cells into the enzyme that destroys
virulent cells. DNA were unable to
transform nonvirulent
bacteria.
DNA
The
Central
Transcription Dogma

Protein
mRNA

Ribosome
Translation

Proteins provide structure


and carry out many essential
activities in a cell.
Nucleotide Structure
Ionized
hydroxyl
groups

Phosphate
group
Deoxyribose
sugar
The Four Bases

Adenine (A) Guanine (G)


Purines

Thymine (T) Cytosine (C)


Pyrimidines
5'-phosphate
Phosphodiester Bonds group

5′-AGCT-3′
Phosphodiester
bond

3'-hydroxyl
group
3' 5'
Sugar–
phosphate
backbone
34 Å =
3.4 nm
(10 base
pairs) per Major groove
complete
turn

Major groove Minor groove

Minor groove

3' 5'
Diameter 20 Å = 2 nm T A G C
Hydrogen Bonding
A and T are held together by
two hydrogen bonds.

Adenine (A) Thymine (T)


Hydrogen Bonding
G and C are held together by
%A = %T three hydrogen bonds.
%G = %C

Guanine (G) Cytosine (C)


Hydrogen
Bonding
and Base
Stacking Base-
stacking
attraction

Sugar–
Hydrogen phosphate
bonding backbone
DNA Replication
Parental strands serve
as the templates for
the daughter strands.

Parental Daughter
strands strands
6
Condensed chromatid Chromatin
1400 nm in diameter

5
Coiled coil
4 700 nm in
Coiled diameter
chromatin fiber
300 nm in
diameter 3
Chromatin
fiber 30 nm
2 in diameter
Nucleosome Histone
proteins 1
fiber 10 nm in DNA duplex 2
diameter nm in diameter

Nucleosome
DNA vs. RNA

Ribose Deoxyribose

Ribose has a hydroxyl (–OH)


group where deoxyribose has a
hydrogen (–H).
DNA vs. RNA
Uracil has a hydrogen (–H)
where thymine has a methyl
(–CH3) group.

Uracil Thymine
(U) (T)

Ribose Deoxyibose
DNA vs. RNA

DNA RNA
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
Bases A, T, C, G A, U, C, G
5′ end Monophosphate Triphosphate
Size Very large Smaller
Strands Double Single
Template vs. Nontemplate Strands
Template strand

RNA transcript

Nontemplate strand
Initiation and Termination of Transcription
Transcription is initiated at a promoter
sequence and ends at a terminator
sequence. The transcript is synthesized
in a 5'-to-3' direction.

Terminator Promoter DNA RNA

TATA

TATA

Which strand is transcribed can


differ from one gene to the next.
1 Enhancer sequences Transcriptional
General transcription
Promoter start site
factors bind to the
promoter, and 3' 5' DNA
5' 3'
transcriptional
Transcriptional activator proteins General
activator proteins
transcription
bind to enhancers.
factors
3' 5'
5' 3'
RNA Polymerase II Adds Nucleotides
5'
3'
Enhancer sequence
Mediator
complex
2 DNA
Through looping of DNA,
transcriptional activator
proteins, mediator
complex, RNA Pol II, and 5'
3'
general transcription
Promoter
factors are brought into
close proximity, allowing
transcription to proceed. RNA polymerase
complex (Pol II)

Promoter region
RNA Polymerase II Adds Nucleotides
RNA
transcript
RNA
polymerase
complex (Pol II)
Template RNA–DNA duplex
DNA strand
Polymerization Reaction
Template strand
1
Incoming ribonucleotides
RNA transcript are accepted if they
correctly base pair with
the template DNA.

Direction of 2
The 3'–OH of the
chain growth
growing strand
attacks the high-
energy phosphate
bond of the
incoming
ribonucleotide,
providing the energy
to drive the reaction.

Hydrogen 3
bonding The two phosphates of
the incoming
ribonucleotide are
released as
pyrophosphate.
RNA Polymerase in Prokaryotes

RNA transcript
RNA polymerase
acts here

Incoming
RNA
DNA already
trinucleotides
transcribed

DNA still to
Nontemplate be
DNA strand transcribed