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LTE Mobility Concept

&
Case Study

Prepared by-
Rajesh kumar
Handovers – Basics

• Reporting – the UE sends the Source eNodeB an Event


A3 that contains monitored neighbor cells

• Preparation – the Source eNodeB sends a request to


the Target eNodeB, which performs admission control

• Execution – after successful preparation, the Source


eNodeB sends a handover command to the UE
X2 Handover

HO Prep Att ++

HO Prep Suc ++

HO Exec Att ++

HO Exec Suc ++
X2 Handover
• 1. RRC Connection Reconfiguration
– Measurement Command message is included in
RRC Connection Reconfiguration message.
– Measurement Configuration
X2 Handover
• 2. RRC Measurement Report
Leve event A3:
Mn+cellIndividualOffsetEUtran+hysteresisA3<Ms+a3Offset

Event A3: Neighbor becomes


amount offset better than serving
X2 Handover
• 3. HO decision
– Source eNB makes a HO decision based on
Measurement Report.

Best Cell Evaluation


X2 Handover
• 4. X2 Handover Request
– The source eNB issues X2 Handover Request Message to the target eNB pasing necessary info to

prepare the HO .
X2 Handover
• 5. Admission control
X2 Handover
• 6. X2 Handover Request Acknowledge

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Handover Command)
X2 Handover
• 7. X2 SN Status Transfer
– User plane
– Source eNB sends this message to target eNB to convey
the UL PDCP SN receiver status and DL PDCP SN
transmitter status.
– Ensures continued in-order frame delivery
– UL PDCP SN receiver status
e.g. RLC-AM: PDCP SN of the first missing UL SDU, a bit map of the receive status of the out of
sequence UL SDUs that the UE needs to retransmit to the target cell.

– DL PDCP SN transmitter status


e.g. RLC-AM: the next PDCP SN that the target eNB shall assign to new SDUs, not having a PDCP SN yet.

– This message may arrive before of after RRC


Reconfiguration Complete
X2 Handover
• 8. Start Data Forwarding
– As soon as the source eNB receives the Handover Request Acknowledge,
or as soon as the transmission of the Handover Command is initiated in
the downlink, data forwarding is initiated if necessary.
– There is neither forwarding nor retransmission of RRC message for RRC
signaling.

DL or UL Source Object Target Object Condition Forward content


RLC-AM DRBs
PDCP SDUs with their SN that have not been
DL Source eNB Target eNB acknowledged by the UE
DL Source eNB Target eNB Fresh data without a PDCP SN arriving over S1
Before the sending of Status Transfer
UL Source eNB SGW message to the target eNB PDCP SDUs successfully received in-sequence
Source eNB has accepted the request from
the target eNB for UL forwarding for the
UL Source eNB Target eNB bearer during HO Pre PDCP SDUs received out of sequence
RLC-UM DRBs
DL Source eNB Target eNB PDCP SDUs that have not been transmitted
DL Source eNB Target eNB Fresh data arriving over S1
PDCP SDUs successfully received(including the
UL Source eNB SGW ones received out of sequence)
X2 Handover
• 9. Buffer Forwarded Data
– The target eNB has to buffer received DL data until
the UE access the new cell.
• 10. RRC Connection Reconfiguration (HO
Command)
– Source eNB sends RRC Connection Reconfiguration to
UE to perform the handover.
– RRC Connection Reconfiguration (RRC Container) is
included in Handover Request Acknowledge which
the source eNB received from target eNB.
– RRC Connection Reconfiguration message include:
• MobilityControlInfo: targetPhysCellId, newUE-identity, rach-
ConfigureDedicated, etc;
• SecurityConfigHO: securityAlgorithmConfig, etc.
X2 Handover
• 11. MAC: CFRA Random Access Preamble
– UE accesses the target cell via RACH.
– CFRA (contention-free random access) if a
dedicated RACH preamble was indicated
– CBRA (contention-based random access) if no
dedicated RACH preamble was indicated.
– UE derives target eNB specific keys and configures
the selected security algorithm to be used in the
target cell.
• 12. MAC Random Access Response (UL
allocation + TA)
– The target eNB responses with UL allocation and
timing advance.
X2 Handover
• 13. RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
– When UE successfully accessed the target cell, the UE sends
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete message (C-RNTI)
to confirm the handover, along with an UL Buffer Status
Report, whenever possible , to the target eNB to indicate
that the handover procedure is completed for the UE.
• 14. DL Data Transfer
– Target eNB begin sending data (forwarded data received
from source eNB) to the UE.
• 15. S1 Path Switch Request
– The target eNB sends S1 Path Switch Request message to
MME to inform that the UE has changed cell.
• 16. S5 User Plane Update Request
– The MME sends an Update User Plane Request message to
SGW.
X2 Handover
• 17. S1 Path Switch
– Path Switch means switch the path for each ERAB (UE-SGW) of the UE.
– After Path Switch, SGW sends “end marker” packets on the old forwarding path.
After completing the sending of the tagged packets, SGW shall not send any
user data packets via the old path.

First deliver all forwarded packets


to the UE, then deliver any of the
packets received on the new path
Upon receiving “end marker”, forward
the packet toward the target eNB if
Forwarding is activated for that bearer Upon receiving “end marker”, discard the
end marker packet and deliver user data
(forwarded over X2, received from
SGW over S1 as a result of Path Switch)
in sequence.
X2 Handover
• 18. Update User Plane Response
– SGW sends an Update User Plane Response message to MME.
• 19. S1 Path Switch Response
– MME confirms the Path Switch message with the Path Switch
Acknowledge message.
• 20. UE Context Release
– Target eNB informs to source eNB of success HO
– Target eNB triggers the release of resources by the source eNB.
• 21. Forward if any data in transmission and Release
– Any ongoing data forwarding may continue
– Source eNB can release radio and C-plane related resources
associated to the UE Context.
S1 Handover

HO Prep Att ++

HO Prep Suc ++
HO Exec Att ++

HO Exec Suc ++
S1 Handover
• 1. RRC Connection Reconfiguration
– Measurement Command message is included in
RRC Connection Reconfiguration message.
– Measurement Configuration
S1 Handover
• 2. RRC Measurement Report
Leve event A3:
Mn+cellIndividualOffsetEUtran+hysteresisA3<Ms+a3Offset

Event A3: Neighbor becomes


amount offset better than serving
S1 Handover
• 3. HO decision
– Source eNB makes a HO decision based on
before theMeasurement Report.
minBestCellHoAttempts: operator controlled parameter, decides how many ho attempts shall be performed on a cell
next best cell is chosen.

Best Cell Evaluation


S1 Handover
• 4. S1 Handover Required
– Source eNB initiates the handover preparation by sending the Handover
Required massage to the serving MME.

– MME will not decode the Source to Target Transparent Container, but send it
directly to target eNB.
S1 Handover
• 5. S10 Forward Relocation Request
– Source MME identifies target MME (MME Selection Function)
– Source MME sends S10 Forward Relocation Request
• MME UE context
• Source to Target Transparent Container
• target eNB ID
• 6. S11 Create Session Req/Res
– Target MME checks if old S-GW can be used
• If old S-GW can not be used
– Target MME will select S-GW
– Orders allocation of the resources in target S-GW
– Triggers GTP tunnel setup between P-GW and target S-GW
• 7. S1 Handover Request
– Once S-GW resources are ordered and GTP Tunnel is set up,
S1 Handover Request message is sent to target eNB.
S1 Handover
• 8. Admission control
S1 Handover
• 9. S1 Handover Request Acknowledge

Send to MME, for S-GW to


connect to target eNB for
user plane traffic

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(Handover Command)
S1 Handover
• 10. S10 Forward Relocation Response
– Pass received Target to Source Container
• 11. Create Bearer Req/Res
– Source MME sends Create Bearer Request to
source S-GW
• Cause: indicate that the bearers are subject to data
forwarding
• Target S-GW address and TEID for forwarding
– Source S-GW responds with a Create Bearer
Response to source MME
• Source S-GW address and TEID for forwarding
S1 Handover
• 12. S1 Handover Command
– Source MME sent S1 Handover Command message to the
source eNB with Target to Source Transparent Container
included in.
• 13. RRC Connection Reconfiguration
– The message contains all the necessary physical radio
configuration for the UE to connect to the target cell. (So UE
does not need to read SIB/MIB of target cell)
– The message also contains security configuration, so the UE
know how to derive security keys for target cell.
– The UE is assigned a new C-RNTI (included in
MobilityControlInfo) in the target cell.
– The UE itself has on idea of handover type
S1 Handover
• 14. MAC: CFRA Random Access Preamble
– UE accesses the target cell via RACH.
– CFRA (contention-free random access) if a dedicated
RACH preamble was indicated in MobilityControlInfo.
– CBRA (contention-based random access) if no dedicated
RACH preamble was indicated.
– UE derives target eNB specific keys and configures the
selected security algorithm to be used in the target cell.
• 15. MAC Random Access Response (UL allocation +
TA)
– The target eNB responses with UL allocation and timing
advance.
S1 Handover
• 16. RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
– When UE successfully accessed the target cell, the UE sends
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete message (C-RNTI)
to confirm the handover, along with an UL Buffer Status
Report, whenever possible , to the target eNB to indicate
that the handover procedure is completed for the UE.
• 17. S1 Handover Notify
– The target eNB informs target MME that the UE has selected
the target cell by sending S1 Handover Notify.
• 18. Data Transfer in Target
– Target MME informs P-GW to switch path (not shown in the
sequence)
S1 Handover
• 19. S10 Forward Relocation Complete/ACK
– Target MME informs source MME that handover
was successful by sending S10 Forward Relocation
Complete.
– Source MME response with S10 Forward Relocation
Complete ACK.
• 20. S1 UE Context Release Command
– Source MME initiates release in source eNB by
sending S1 UE Context Release Command.
Handover – Counters
  Ho Preparation Counter Ho Execution Counter
PmHoPrepAttLteIntraF PmHoExeAttLteIntraF
Primary PmHoPrepSuccLteIntraF PmHoExesuccLteIntraF
     
PmHoPrepRejInLicMob  
PmHoPrepRejInBearerAdmissionRej  
PmHoPrepRejInHighload  
Secondary PmHoPrepRejInOverload  

› Preparation Success Rate Note: Counters


– pmHoPrepSuccLteIntraF / pmHoPrepAttLteIntraF are pegged on
the SOURCE!!!

› Execution Success Rate


– pmHoExeSuccLteIntraF / pmHoExeAttLteIntraF

› Handover Success Rate


– Preparation Success Rate x Execution Success Rate
IFHO FUNCTIONALITY

# A5 Functionality

# Function Diagram
IFHO FUNCTIONALITY (A5)
The IFHO functionality depends primarily on 6 parameters, 
 
a5Threshold1Rsrp: This determines the threshold below which the serving cell has to be
 
a5Threshold2Rsrp: This determines the threshold above which the target cell has to be
 
a5Threshold1RsrpAnrDelta: This is added to a5Threshold1Rsrp
 
a5Threshold2RsrpAnrDelta: This is subtracted from a5Threshold2Rsrp
 
a2ThresholdRsrpPrim: Determines the level after which A5 for IFHO should be triggered
 
a1ThresholdRsrpPrim: Determines if the UE has entered into good RF again for the same event is triggered, all a2/a5 
events will be cancelled 
 
In order to understand IFHO lets consider the scenario below with settings source cell, 
IFHO FUNCTIONALITY (A5)

A-At this Point the Scource gets below 
A5anr1 and target  gets better than 
a5anr2-hence  A5 anr will be triggered. 
ANR feature add neib in the time b/w 
PointA and Point C.

B- At this Point the scource gets below 
A5th1 and target get better than a5th2-A5 
A B condition is met,but IFHO wont happen 
C D since A2 is not  yet triggered.

C-At this point A2 is triggered Since the 
A5 ANR is A2 is A5 IFHO is
scource falls below A2thPrim
trggered trigger triggered
ed

D-At this point A5 IFHO takes place since 
A2 condition is met as well as A5 th are 
also being met.

Note: If a1threshold is triggered between A2 and A5 trigger (between C and D), then it cancels the UE will
not be measuring other frequencies anymore. So A1 threshold should be chosen 6-the A2 threshold, in
order to avoid this.
IRAT FUNCTIONALITY B2 Functionality 
 Function Diagram 

The IRAT functionality depends primarily on 4 parameters (assuming WC disabled), 
 
b2Threshold1Rsrp: This determines the threshold below which the serving LTE cell has t
 
b2Threshold2RscpUtra: This determines the threshold above which the target UMTS cell
 
a2ThresholdRsrpPrim: Determines the level after which B2 for IRAT should be triggered
 
a1ThresholdRsrpPrim: Determines if the UE has entered into good RF again for the sam even is triggered, all a2/b2 
events will be cancelled 
 
In order to understand IRAT lets consider the scenario below with settings source cell, 
IRAT FUNCTIONALITY (B2)

A-At this point UMTS cell is better than


b2th2Rscp-indicates that UMTS cell is
already meeting its th for b2.
b2th1Rsrp is met

B-At this Point the LTE serving cell is


B below b2th1Rsrp.Also at this point the
entire b2 condition is met, but b2 is not
triggered since there is no a2 triggered.
A C A2th is met &b2 is triggered.

C-At this point a2 is triggered since


b2th2Rscp is met the scource falls below the a2thprim-
b2 is immediately triggered as well
since the b2 condition is also satisfied.

Note: If a1threshold is triggered between A2 and B2 trigger, then it cancels the A2 report and th
measuring other UMTS frequencies anymore. So A1 threshold should be chosen 6-7 dB higher threshold, in
order to avoid this. Same applies to a1thresholdsec.
Mobility

Parameters for A3 Event triggering (Optimization Opportunity)


CASE STUDY
Handover Preparation
Typically, handover preparations fail due to something wrong with the target cell
Possible causes of handover preparation failures

# MME termination points are different on Source and Target


# SpidHoWhiteList is active on the target, which has plmnReserved set to true
# S1 interface failure on the target cell
# Target cell is overloaded (high capacity)
# Target cell has a fault (alarm, disabled cell, etc)
# Target cell unavailable (down, does not exist)
#  License issue/Software issue.
#  Site Configuration issue.
HO Preparation failure due to IntraLTEHandover feature disabled:-

DXL00221
DXL20221
DXL23162
DXL03162

DXL00567
DXL20567
DXL03040
DXL23040

DXL23002
DXL03002

› HO Prep failures occurred to DXL23040 as the IntraLTEHandover


feature had been disabled
HO_Prep Failure due to Software Package Corrupted:-

EUtranCellRelation % HO Fail Rate -HO Prep Fail Tampa Cascade

310120-434293-3 93.04% 162382 SPBGFLTEBBULTE043429331 TA03XC123

310120-434293-2 92.11% 151588 SPBGFLTEBBULTE043429321 TA03XC123

310120-434293-1 92.86% 141738 SPBGFLTEBBULTE043429311 TA03XC123

SPBGFLTEBBULTE0434293> Nr of active alarms are: 2


====================================================================================================================
Date & Time (Local) S Specific Problem MO (Cause/AdditionalInfo)
====================================================================================================================
2013-11-21 19:35:20 M Disconnected ExternalNode=2 (hubPosition: A6)
2013-11-22 15:17:20 M Upgrade Package Corrupt UpgradePackage=CXP102051%18_R23BM (file_error)
>>> Total: 2 Alarms (0 Critical, 2 Major

Observation: Newly Integrated site.Huge Ho_Prep fail have been observed,after


investigation found that Software package installed is corrupted.
HO_Prep Failure due to Sector Down:-

EUtranCellRela
tion % HO Fail Rate -HO Prep Fail EUTRAN Cell Fdd Id Cascade

310120-
434234-2 99.70% 56632 PTRCFLAHBBULTE043423421 TA03XC060

CellId #UE:s #Bearers


100
200
3 11 11

Note: Here we can see that 2nd sector not taking call as sector is down.Hence HO_Prep
failure happening.
Handover Execution Failures:-

Possible causes of handover execution failures:-

# ANR PCI Conflict – will explain in next slides


# Target exceeds cell range – the target cell is more than 15km from the UE (or the
current cell range setting)
# Target is a sleeping cell – the target cell is sleeping
#Target has high uplink interference – the link will be imbalanced and the UE will
not establish on the target

# Poor RF conditions
# Target cell Radion has Deaf(UL N/I=-121 or-122)dBm.
ANR PCI Conflict
Site C Site A • Site A online in January
March January
• Site B online in February
– Site A   Site B neighbors
5 1 • Site C online in March
– UE reports PCI, eNB executes HO to
7 3
Site B instead of Site C
6

2
2 km
15 km 7
5
UE only reports 
PCI, not CGI 6

Site B
February
HO_Execution Failure due to Radio Deaf:-

EUtranCellRelation % HO Fail Rate -HO Exec Fail SWF Cascade

310120-426013-1 100.00% 21490 FTMYFLGRBBULTE042601311 MI13XC030

Note: Cell having very low N/I(-121)dBm. Probably Radio is deaf and Call is not
able to established on Target cell.
THANK YOU