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Industrial Engineering Department

Industrial &
Organizational
Psychology
Lecture-01

Ineu Widaningsih

Industrial & Organizational Psychology-IW-2005


Industrial Engineering Department

PURPOSE OF IOP COURSE


• learn knowledge of psychology in industry &
organization
• understand basic concept of psychology
• develop ability to apply concepts for solving
problems related with human in industrial
engineering field
by understanding psychological aspect :
• Understand why someone having behavior on
certain reaction when facing problem
• To understand mental process
• Ability to evaluate/solve problem by applying
psychological approach
Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
Industrial Engineering Department

REFERENCE
PRIMARY MATERIAL: Michael G.
Aamodt, Industrial/Organizational
Psychology, 6th ed, Thomson, 2009

Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
Industrial Engineering Department

COURSE ASSESSMENT
• Homework /Quiz 20%
• Mid-semester Exam 40%
• Final Exam (Research) 40%

Research topics (questioner & interview):


- Job satisfaction & Motivation
- Working condition & Stress in the work place
- Training & Development
4 persons/group
Propose group topics by week 2

Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
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RULES
COURSE ASSIGNMENTS
• Students are required to read the scheduled topics or material prior to class, complete the
assignments and exercises and expected to participate in the discussion during the class. Students
must observe professionalism in the classroom. Any usage of cell-phone is strictly prohibited during
lecturers.
Homework
• Homework provides student with an opportunity to develop personal mastery of the concepts,
methods, and tools presented in the course. Homework will be given approximately once every two
weeks. Five out of six assigned homework will be counted toward your assignment grade. Students
are encouraged to work together with their classmates in solving the homework problems to
provide a better learning atmosphere. Homework should be submitted individually and due in the
beginning of the class. NO LATE HOMEWORK WILL BE ACCEPTED. A readable handwritten
homework is acceptable, otherwise, type.
Quizzes
• There will be a total of three quizzes given: two prepared quizzes and some pop quizzes.
Midterm and Final Exams
• Exams will cover materials which are taught during the lecturers. NO MAKE-UP EXAMS WILL BE
GIVEN UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. If you have to miss an exam (for whatever reason), zero
grade will be assigned for that exam unless you have a doctor’s documentation of illness.
Classroom Conduct and Professionalism
• Everyone must observe professionalism in the classroom. Respect for classmates and instructor in
any activity is a must. As learned individual, you will 1) come to class early, 2) not engage in
informal chatter or other communication during the class, 3) respect the opinion of others, 4)
refrain from using communication devices, 5) not sleep in the classroom, and 6) not do other class-
work in the classroom.
PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY HONOR CODE
• All students should abide the PU Honor Code of Conduct. Read the student handbook for more
information.

Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
Industrial Engineering Department

SESSION OUTLINE
Session Lecturer Topic Description
Introduction to Industrial Psychology : principles, Definition , approaches , sub-disciplines ,
Week 1
practices, problems. applied psychology

Techniques, tools, and tactics of industrial psychology Research & measurement methods
Human psychology attributes

Week 2 Job Analysis & Evaluation Chapter 2

Legal Issues in Employee Selection Chapter 3

Week 3 Employee Selection : Recruiting & Interviewing Chapter 4

Week 4 Employee Selection : References & Testing Chapter 5

Evaluating Selection Techniques & Decisions Chapter 6

Evaluation Employee Performance Chapter 7


Week 5

Week 6 Designing & Evaluating Training Systems Chapter 8

Week 7 Midtest

Employee Motivation Chapter 9 & 10


Week 8 Employee Satisfaction & Commitment

Week 9 Organizational Communication Chapter 11

Week 10 Leadership Chapter 12

Group Behavior, Teams & conflict Chapter 13 & 15


Week 11
Stress Management

Week 12 Organization Development Chapter 14

Week 13 Final Report


Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
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Today we learn :
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National Research Council Survey


(1999)
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Good Job & Good Work


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What I/O's do?


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- Psychology has along past but a short history


- Psyche = soul;
Logos = knowledge
- Definition :
study about mental activity (before 20 cent)
study about behavior (after 20 cent)
Scientific study about behavior & mental process.
- Field :
Research
Application

Industrial Psychology-IW-2005
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BRIEF HISTORY

Read page 5 – 9
- The field of I/O psychology began in
early 1900s and has grown rapidly
since then.
- WWI, WWII, Hawthorne studies, civil
rights legislation, new technology,
and changing demographics have
had important impacts on I/O
psychology.

Industrial & Organizational Psychology-IW-2005


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HISTORYCAL BACKGROUND

• Technological improvement 
work organization change
• Human involvement  tools,
automation, mechanization
• Changes  some problems
• The early years (1900-1916)
• Bryan (1904) : term “industrial
psychology”
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HISTORYCAL BACKGROUND
• Taylor : studied the value of
redesigning the work situation to
improve productivity and higher
wages.
• Musterberg :
 Used real-work situations to select
employees
• Gilberth : research on human motion
• World-war (1917-1918)
 Army : assessment & selection of recruits
 Journal of Applied Psychology
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HISTORYCAL BACKGROUND

• Between the wars 1919-1940)


 Hawthorne studies
– Tendency of people to behave
differently when they receive attention
because they respond to the demands
of the situation
– Refers to a situation  employees
respond positively to novelty in their
environment.
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HISTORYCAL BACKGROUND

• WWII (1941-1945) : Testing &


classification
 Army General Classification Test (AGCT)
 Situational stress test by the US Office of
Strategic Services: for assignment into
military intelligence unit
 Selection & training of pilots & measure of
soldier attitude & morale : led to the field
of engineering psychology
 Development of employment test greatly
increased
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HISTORYCAL BACKGROUND

• 1946-1963 : Sub-specialities
– Eng psy, Personnel Psy, OB, IP, Social Psy
– HRM
• 1964-Present : Government
intervention
– Organizational psy concept. Focus : leadership,
philosophy, organization structure, incentive,
effective, satisfaction
– Improving performance
– HCM
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Interest in I/O P?
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What does culture have to do with I/O?


• Lots of business owned by non-local.
• 20 % of our jobs are tied to international
trade.
• Lots of expatriates.
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• Situational Variables
– Physical & job variables (related with work)
– Organizational & job variables
• Individual Variables
– Aptitude
– Personality characteristics
– Value systems
– Physical characteristics
– Interest & motivation
– Age, sex
– Education
– Experience
– Cultural background, etc
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Principles & Practices


IOP interest :
How work can be made more satisfying and
productive ?
IOP concern :
all aspects of behavior that relate to the
workplace
Practices :
- Identify the causes of problems that result in
lowered performance or morale in workers
- Design programs to eliminate those problems
- Create employee training programs, counsel
employees , and set up system for evaluating job
performance
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Psychological Approach
1. Neurobiological Approach
2. Behavioral Approach
3. Cognitive Approach
4. Psycho-analytics Approach
5. Phenomenological Approach
- Not mutually exclusive; but focusing on
certain different aspects as reaction to
problem encountered.
- No right or wrong approach

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Psychological Approach (1)


1. Neurobiological Approach
Human brain : > 12 billion neurological cells
+ many interconnections
 stimulate human activities
Understanding behavioral aspects through
understanding of brain works &
neurological system
Example : learning process
new learned knowledge is saved in
neurological system

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Psychological Approach (1)


1. Neurobiological Approach
Eye looking at something  information
saved in brain (perception)
There is close relationship between brain
activities with experience & behavior. We
can give electrical stimulus in specific
area in the brain to get certain emotional
reaction (past memories).
Relatively slow progress in Neurobiological
Approach because of limitation on how
we understand complex human brain.
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Psychological Approach (2)


2. Behavioral Approach
- Observed activities
- Pre’90 : based on mental study (self
observation: individual notes about
perception & feeling, cannot be
generalized )
- John B. Watson (1990) : If psychology is
a science than it has to be able to be
observed & measured

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Psychological Approach (2)


2. Behavioral Approach
BF Skinner (Harvard, Psychology) :
Stimulus-Response Psychology
Concentrate on input (trigger) & output
(response) called black-box approach
Ex : Reward & Punishment system 
encourage learning process to minimize
mistakes

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Psychological Approach (3)


3. Cognitive Approach
Stimuli  active process
Received information (eye, ear , or
memory)  new categorization (brain) 
activities (talk , read , learn etc)
Cognitive : mental process from perception ,
memory , & information process  new
knowledge  utilization (problem solving
or planning)

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Psychological Approach (3)


3. Cognitive Approach
Objective : to develop theory on how mental
process organized & functioned -
receiving, selecting , using stimulus
(information) as basic for decision
making & planning process
Kenneth Craik : human brain is like
computer , having the ability to do
modeling or parallel work. (computer
analogy)
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Psychological Approach (4)


4. Psychoanalysis Approach
Sigmun Freud : human behavior is
controlled by unconsciousness
impulses (past history)  thinking ,
feeling , needs (unconscious)  behavior
Negative side of living
Human is not rational , having basic
instincts like animals , opposites with
social lives
Freud : pessimist with the idea that people
can live together peacefully
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Psychological Approach (5)


5. Phenomenological Approach
Focusing on subjective experience – starting
from understanding about the world and
personally doing activity based on
interpretation of the seen events (can be
without theory)
Learn about human natural character in
interpreting him/herself & the world. This
can be observed through human
activities.
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Psychological Approach (5)


5. Phenomenological Approach
Two persons can react differently when
given same treatment/condition. By
asking how they interpret situation
individually, we can understand their
behavior.
Rejecting concept of psychoanalysis
Reaction to external factors (behavior
theory) : human behavior is not reaction
to the controlled external factors, it is a
self-actualization of some one who can
change takdir
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Psychological Approach (5)


5. Phenomenological Approach
People have freedom to choose & plan
Freewill vs determinism
Kierkegaard, Sartre , Camus
Humanistic (Human is different with
animal) – freedom to find self
actualization
 Motivation theories to develop
competencies
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Application of those approaches (1)

Every psychological aspects can be


explained using those approach.
Example :aggression
Physiological psychologist
Learn how brain mechanism stimulates behavior by giving
electrical & chemical stimulus to specific region in the
brain
Behavioral psychologist
learn about persons learning experiences to understand
why he is more aggressive than other when getting any
treatment. Moreover we can learn about factors causing
someone behavior.

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Application of those approaches (1)

Cognitive psychologist
Focus on understanding someone’s perception
(thinking) to the events & how mental
representation modified by new information.
Humanistic psychologist
Focus on understanding individual lives situation
aspects which contributes to his aggressiveness
in order to develop his self-actualization

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Application of those approaches (1)


Each approach will result in different solution in changing
someone’s behavior. Example:

Physiological psychologist  medicine or surgery


Behavioral psychologist Working environment modification
to develop new learning environment (ex : reward for
non-aggressiveness)
Cognitive psychologist  Behavioral approach focusing on
individual mental process
Psychoanalysis psychologist  understanding background of
unconscious mind of someone which than finding the
acceptable behavior to change the previous
Humanistic psychologist  helping the person by identifying
his feelings and then help the person to improve his
interpersonal skill. Main objective : engineering social
aspects to force competition/cooperation
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PSYCHOLOGY DISCIPLINES
• General Psychology : learning human behavior as
separates things : sensory process, perception , emotion ,
ability , thinking , memories , etc
• Developmental Psychology : learning human
behavior based on phase/periods of development. Ex :
children, teenager, adult.
• Personality Psychology :
learning about behavior
differences between different people. Object :personality
theories , personality development , personality types.
• Social Psychology : learning about certain
person/group behavior related with other person/group
(social environment). Also describing values , rules ,
communication , leadership , authority , etc
• Abnormal Psychology : learning about abnormal
behavior.

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PSYCHOLOGY DISCIPLINES
Finding & facts from psychology & its sub-
disciplines mostly applied in many
environment/context, ex : military ,
education , industry etc known as military
psychology , educational psychology ,
Industrial & Organizational Psychology etc

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APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

1. Experimental & Physiologist : Study about


people through experimental methods. Ex : reaction to
different color , learning , memorizing emotional
response , or motivation to work. Developing
psychological measurement & control methods.
2. Social, Personality, and development
Behavior.
DB : study about people growth and effecting factors. Ex :
knowledge ability of children
Social : understanding attitude & behavior of people
(individual/group) effected by interaction with others. Ex :
to understand public opinion/market research
Personality : product of DB & Social Psychology. Focusing
on finding individual differences (special characteristics).
Individual classification for certain objective, ex : to find
pilots candidates.
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APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

3. Clinical & Counseling Psychologist: ability to


diagnose & giving treatment to emotional & behavior
problems. Ex : mental illness, criminal behavior,
drugs addicts,mental degradation, family conflicts
etc. Counseling psychologist usually facing less-
complex problem.
4. School & Education Psychologist
SP :work with individual students to evaluate & help
solving emotional problems related with school; ex :
administer & interpreting intelligence, achievement &
personality test. Consultation with parents &
recommendation for each children at school/home.
EP : focus on study & teaching, how to find effective
learning methods.

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APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

5. Industrial & Engineering Psychologist


IP:
- employee selection methods
- training program development
- participate in decision making management
EP : matching men & machines
- design to minimize human error
- work with social psychologist to solve problems. Ex
: environmental problems, design of office &
residential
6. Psychology Specialist.
Ex : Forensics, Computer psychologist (AI)

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Industrial & Organizational


Psychology
• Branch of psychology that
applies principles of the
psychology into the workplace
 Applied psychology
 Based on research & practical
 About human behavior in the
workplace (person-work & person-
organization fit)
 Problem solving
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Industrial & Organizational


Psychology
• The area of psychology
concerned with individual
behavior in work situations
• Focus : human
• To solve problem in industry
(manufacture or service)
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Industrial & Organizational


Psychology
• Mc Cormick & Tiffin (1974)  IP
is important in achieving equity
between producer & consumer
• Industry  product or service to
satisfy human needs/wants 
welfare
• Effective, treat people as human
• Human Involvement
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I/O PSYCHOLOGY

Scientist-practitioner model : I/O psychologist


conduct research (scientist), work with
actual organizations (practitioner), and
apply research findings so that the work
they perform with organizations will be of
high quality and enhance an organization’s
effectiveness (scientist-practitioner). –
page (3)
 Research is important so that I/O
psychologist can make the best decision.

Industrial & Organizational Psychology-IW-2005