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# Lecture #4

## Methods of Structural Analysis

Trusses and frames. Statically determinate trusses
FLOWCHART OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Real object
is kept
Structural
layout Assumptions and simplifications
according to the problem
Design model

Structural analysis
Results of
analysis
This step is beyond the scope
of structural analysis
Implementation
on real object
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FLOWCHART OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Real object

Structural
layout

Design model

Results of
analysis

Implementation
on real object
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FLOWCHART OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Real object

Structural
layout

Design model

Results of
analysis

Implementation
on real object
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FLOWCHART OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## Real object Depending on the kind of

problem which is solved, the
design model could be either as
Structural detailed as structural layout, or
layout as generalized as below:

Design model

Results of
analysis

Implementation
on real object
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METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## Analytical methods Numerical methods

Best for designing Best for checking
calculations, suit for calculations, practically
checking calculations with effete for designing
certain limitations calculations

## Solutions exist for partial

Versatile and flexible
cases (specific objects)
Need much work to be
Need expensive and
developed, but only
complex software and
simple software for
hardware
application
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ANALYTICAL METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

• methods of Mechanics of Materials;
• methods for statically indeterminate structures:
• method of forces;
• method of displacements;
• beam theory for thin-walled structures;
• method of reduction coefficients.

## Rarely used nowadays (mostly due to the progress

of numerical methods):
• methods based on Calculus of Variations;
• methods of Theory of Elasticity.
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NUMERICAL METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## Most widely used nowadays is

Finite Element Method (FEM).
The structural analysis using FEM is called finite
element analysis (FEA).

## Generally, FEM is just a method to solve

differential equations.
The physical background of FEM is the same as in
analytical methods.

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CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PROBLEMS

## Statically determinate Statically indeterminate

Equilibrium equations could Equilibrium equations could
be directly solved, and thus be solved only when
forces could be calculated coupled with physical law
in an easy way and compatibility equations
Stress state depends only Stress state depends on
Not survivable, moderately Survivable, widely used in
used in modern aviation modern aviation
(due to damage tolerance (due to damage tolerance
requirement) property)
Easy to manufacture Hard to manufacture
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BASIC EQUATIONS OF SOLID MECHANICS

## This is not only the sum of

Equilibrium
forces or moments, but applies
equations
for elementary volume as well

## Physical law, expresses

Constitutive
the relation between
equations
stress and strain

## Solid body should

Compatibility
remain continuous
equations
while being deformed
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BASIC EQUATIONS OF SOLID MECHANICS

## This is not only the sum of forces

Equilibrium
or moments, but applies for
equations
elementary volume as well.
 x  xy  xz
   X  0,
x y z
Constitutive
equations  xy  y  yz
   Y  0,
x y z
 xz  yz  z
   Z  0,
Compatibility x y z
equations where X ,Y ,Z  external forces.
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BASIC EQUATIONS OF SOLID MECHANICS

## Physical law, expresses the

Equilibrium
relation between stress and strain.
equations

 x   x    y   z  ,
1
E

 y   y     x   z   ,
Constitutive 1
equations E

 z   z   x   y  ,
1
E

 xy  xz  yz
Compatibility  xy  ,  xz  ,  yz 
equations G G G
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BASIC EQUATIONS OF SOLID MECHANICS

## Solid body should remain

Equilibrium
continuous while being deformed.
equations
 2 x   y   xy  2 x  2 z  2 xz
2 2

 2  ,  2  ,
y 2
x x y z 2
x x z
 2 y  z
2
 2 yz
  ,
Constitutive z 2 y 2
y z
equations    yz  xz  xy   2 x
   2 ,
x  x y z  y z
   yz  xz  xy   2 y
   2 ,
y  x y z  x z
Compatibility    yz  xz  xy   2 z
   2 .
equations z  x y z  x y
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BASIC EQUATIONS OF SOLID MECHANICS
From analytical point of view, every design model can
be expressed as a set of three basic equations with
corresponding boundary conditions.

Equilibrium Boundary
equations conditions:
• geometrical
features;
Constitutive • supports and Design
equations other means of model
fixation;
• applied
Compatibility displacements
equations and forces.
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WAYS TO SOLVE A SOLID MECHANICS PROBLEM
Displacements
Stresses are
are set as
set as
unknowns
Compatibility unknowns
equations Constitutive
equations
Strains are
derived Strains are
Constitutive derived
equations Equilibrium
equations
Stresses are
derived Compatibility
Equilibrium
equations
equations
Equilibrium Compatibility
equations are equations are
solved solved
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MAIN METHODS COVERED IN SECOND SEMESTER
Methods of structural analysis

## Analytical methods Numerical methods

(finite element method)

## Method of joints For statically

determinate
Method of sections structures

Force method
For statically
Displacement method
indeterminate
(slope-deflection method)
structures
Matrix methods
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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION

Junkers F.13,
Germany, 1920

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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION

truss spar
beam spar

FFVS,
Sweden, 1942

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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION
Concorde,
Europe,
1969

truss spar
beam spar
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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION

Concorde,
Europe,
1969

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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION
A300,
Europe,
1972

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USE OF TRUSS STRUCTURES IN AVIATION

## motor mount frame

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES

Trusses Frames

## Members are subjected At least one member is

to tension/compression subjected to bending,
only shear or torsion

## Usually more simple to Usually more simple to

calculate, more weight manufacture, and to
effective place in tight layout
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES

Connection by riveting,
moment-resistant
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES

Connection
by welding,
moment-
resistant

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TOPIC OF THE LECTURE

## Methods of forces calculation:

•Method of joints
•Method of sections
•Method of substitution of members

Supplementary tools:
•Zero-force member identification
•Principle of superposition
•Use of symmetry

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CONCLUSIONS

Method Method of
Method of
substitution of
of joints sections
members

Used for
Effective when complex
forces in few structures;
Effective for two-
certain members numerical
member joints
should be methods should
determined be considered as
an alternative

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Method of joints and method of sections are covered in
A. Kassimali. Structural Analysis. 2009,
Chapters 4.5 and 4.6

## Nice video on method of joints

Nice video on method of sections

## Principle of superposition and method of substitution of

members are covered in
A. Williams. Structural Analysis In Theory and Practice. 2009,
Chapters 1.7, 2.4
… Internet is boundless …
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TOPIC OF THE NEXT LECTURE

## All materials of our course are available

at department website k102.khai.edu
1. Go to the page “Библиотека”
2. Press “Structural Mechanics (lecturer Vakulenko S.V.)”
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