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Life Cycle Analysis:

CEMENT
INDUSTRY

Judy Ann Bose


Life Cycle Analysis
The Life Cycle Assessment
Goal and Scope Definition
 Goal:
To assess the potential environmental
impact due to cement manufacturing
process

 Scope :
The scope of this presentation focuses on the
raw material acquisition, processing, and
product manufacturing stages i.e. lime stone
mining to Cement.
Cement Manufacturing Process
 Considering life cycle of cement, it undergoes
various chemical and physical transformations.

 Considering product system:


 Inputs:
Raw materials and energy (Electricity and fuel
sources)

 Outputs:
Principal product, Emissions to air, solid waste, other
environmental interactions
System Boundaries
System Boundaries
Inventory Analysis
Inputs/Outputs:

•Raw material from mines


•water use
•Diesel use
•Saw dust/ rice husk use
•Explosives use
•Particulate matter emissions
•Gaseous emissions
•Heavy metals emissions
Inventory Analysis
Lime Stone Mines:
Raw Material Product Consumption

Explosive, Lime 89.95 gm/ton


(Ammonium Nitrate Stone
Fuel Oil @ 100gm/ ton
of Lime stone)
Saw dust/ rice husk Lime 10.65 gm/ton
Stone
Diesel Lime 0.42>3.0
Stone lit/ton
Inventory Analysis
Process Plant:
Raw Material Consumption of Raw Product
Material per unit of Output
(ton/ton)
Lime stone 0.8757
Shale 0.1
Cement
Iron Ore/Red 0.0181/0.0111
ochre
Coal 0.0926
Gypsum 0.0706
Fly ash 0.2931
Inventory Analysis
Process Plant:
Material Consumption of Raw Product
Material per unit of Output
(ton/ton)
Lime stone 0.8757
Shale 0.1
Cement
Iron Ore/Red 0.0181/0.0111
ochre
Coal 0.0926
Gypsum 0.0706
Fly ash 0.2931
Inventory Analysis
Particulate Matter Analysis of different stacks:
Stack Min. Max. Avg.
attached to Particulate Particulate Particulate
matter matter matter
(mg/Nm3) (mg/Nm3) (mg/Nm3)

Raw mill 32.4 50.8 41.6


and Kiln
Exhaust
Cooler 46.5 54.9 50.7
Cement mill 38.0 55.6 46.8
Coal mill 46.0 55.6 50.8
LM Crusher 46.1 54.8 50.45
Inventory Analysis

 Hazardous waste :

• 78.8 kiloliter in terms of used oil and grease


(Lubricants)
• 32.9 kiloliter fuel oil sludge from Diesel
generator sets
Therefore,
• Used oil and grease: 0.036 Lit/ ton
• Fuel oil sludge : 0.015Lit/ ton
Inventory Analysis
 Water consumption (Process plant):
• Industrial: 7.96×105 lit/day
• Domestic: 4.18×105 lit/day
• Total : 1,296,213 lit/ day

 Water consumption (Limestone mine):


• Industrial: 77,213 lits/ day
• Domestic: 5,000 lits/day
i.e. 185.18 lit/ ton
Inventory Analysis
Kiln and Raw Mill Exhaust:
Parameter Unit (kg/ton)
SO2 0.0146744
NO 0.9254828 C6H6 ND
NO2 0.0167089 Hg 1.436E-05
NOx 1.432698 Hydrocarbon ND
CO 0.6726382 Cobalt 1.41E-05
HCL 0.0005658 Copper 2.48E-05
NH3 0.0264336 Lead 2.825E-05
PM 0.0263513 Manganese 0.0001199
TOC 0.011914 Nickel 9.616E-06
CO2 514.67345 Thalium 2.179E-06
O2 220.48723 Vanadium ND
H2O 167.53291 Zink 4.016E-06
HF ND
Impact Assessment
Impact Assessment of Environmental Loading:
Impact Assessment
Impact Assessment of Environmental Loading:
Impact name Classification
Resource depletion Global Regional
Local

Acidification Regional
Local
Eutrophication Local

Greenhouse effect Global

Ecotoxicity (no unit) Local

Human toxicity via water,soil, Global Regional


air, and plants Local
Evaluation of Impact Assessment
Parameter ADP GWP AP POCP EP HTP
kg CO2 kg SO2 kg C2H4 kg PO4 kg 1,4 DCB
kg Sb eq/ kg eq/ eq/ eq / eq/ eq/ kg
kg kg kg kg
Naptha 0.0201
LPG 0.0187
NGL 0.0187
Coal 0.0067
Natural Gas 0.0187
Petrolium 0.0201
Crude oil 0.0201
LNG 0.0187

CO2 1
CH4 21
HCF 2800
N2O 310
SF4 23900
Nox 0.7 0.028 0.13 1.2
Sox 1 0.048 0.096
Dust 0.82
HCL 0.088 0.5
CO 0.027

COD 0.022
T-P 3.06
T-N 750
Phenol 0.00008
Source: Handbook of LCA 2002
Evaluation of Impact Assessment
Paramete GWP AP POCP EP HTP
r
kg CO2 eq/ kg SO2 eq/ kg C2H4 eq / kg PO4 eq/ kg 1,4 DCB
kg kg kg kg eq/ kg

SO2 0.014674 0.000704 0.001409


NO
NO2
NOx 1.0028886 0.040116 0.186251 1.719238
CO 0.018161
HCL 4.97904E- 0.000283
05
NH3
PM 0.021608
TOC
CO2 514.6735
Evaluation of Impact Assessment
Emitted Particulate Matter based on functional
unit:
Evaluation of Impact Assessment
Valuing/Weighing:

Impact Category Relative


Importance
Weight (%)
Global Warming 16

Acidification 5

Eutrophication 5

Fossil Fuel Depletion 5

Human Health 11
Conclusions/Recommendations

 Dust suction facility at ground level.


Enclosing cement mill section and using
rubber curtains as a barriers for dust.
 Control the corrosion of different transfer
platforms.
 Provision of :
 Policy Aspects
 Mining
 Process
Conclusions/Recommendations

 Provision of :
 Use of Alternate Fuel
 Product Variation
 Packaging
 Environmental Good Practices
Thank you!